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Table 3 Selected behaviour change techniques for the Girls Active Project intervention and intervention strategy

From: Co-design of a school-based physical activity intervention for adolescent females in a disadvantaged community: insights from the Girls Active Project (GAP)

Selected Behaviour Change Technique (code)
Definitiona
Girls Active Project Intervention strategy
Goal setting (behaviour) (1.1)
Set or agree a goal defined in terms of the behaviour to be achieved.
Intervention recipients set a goal to attend a weekly after-school PA programme where they partake in an exercise class.
Action planning (1.4)
Prompt detailed planning of performance of the behaviour (must include at least one of context, frequency, duration and intensity). Context may be environmental (physical or social) or internal (physical, emotional or cognitive).
Recipients are asked to plan to attend the weekly after-school PA programme.
Monitoring of behaviour by others without feedback (2.1)
Observe or record behaviour with the person’s knowledge as part of a behaviour change strategy.
Recipients’ behaviour is monitored at the weekly after-school PA programme.
Social support (practical) (3.2)
Advise on, arrange, or provide practical help (e.g., from friends, relatives, colleagues, ‘buddies’ or staff) for performance of the behaviour.
Practical help is provided to recipients at the after-school PA programme.
Parents/guardians are advised (via written form) to provide practical help to facilitate their daughters participation.
School staff are advised (verbally) to provide practical help to facilitate students’ participation, such as volunteering to supervise the weekly after-school programme.
Social support (emotional) (3.3)
Advise on, arrange, or provide emotional social support (e.g., from friends, relatives, colleagues, ‘buddies’ or staff) for performance of the behaviour.
Emotional social support is provided to recipients at the after-school programme.
School staff and parents/guardians are advised to provide encouragement and emotional support to facilitate PA participation.
Instruction on how to perform a behaviour (4.1)
Advise or agree on how to perform the behaviour.
Project Leaders (intervention providers) advise on how to perform PA at the after-school programme.
Information about health consequences (5.1)
Provide information (e.g., written, verbal, visual) about health consequences of performing the behaviour.
Information on the benefits of regular participation in PA are explained to intervention recipients (verbally).
Monitoring of emotional consequences (5.4)
Prompt assessment of feelings after attempts at performing the behaviour.
Each week, intervention recipients are asked how they feel after the exercise class.
Demonstration of the behaviour (6.1)
Provide an observable sample of the performance of the behaviour, directly in person or indirectly e.g., via film, pictures, for the person to aspire to or imitate.
Project Leaders (intervention providers) demonstrate how to perform PA at the after-school programme.
Prompts/cues (7.1)
Introduce or define environmental or social stimulus with the purpose of prompting or cueing the behaviour. The prompt or cue would normally occur at the time or place of performance.
Intervention recipients receive emails from the school to remind them to participate in the weekly after-school PA programme.
School staff and parents/guardians are advised to provide regular verbal reminders. These prompts reinforce other BCTs by reminding recipients of the benefits of PA (5.1) and action planning (1.4).
Behavioural practice/rehearsal (8.1)
Prompt practice or rehearsal of the performance of the behaviour one or more times in a context or at a time when the performance may not be necessary, in order to increase habit and skill.
Recipients practice PA at each exercise class in the after-school programme.
Habit formation (8.3)
Prompt rehearsal and repetition of the behaviour in the same context repeatedly so that the context elicits the behaviour.
Recipients repeatedly participate in PA on a weekly basis at the after-school programme.
Generalisation of a target behaviour (8.6)
Advise to perform the wanted behaviour, which is already performed in a particular situation, in another situation.
Intervention recipients are advised to be active during the week too. This generalisation of PA also reinforces the BCT (information about health consequences, code 5.1) by reminding recipients of the benefits of PA.
Credible source (9.1)
Present verbal or visual communication from a credible source in favour of or against the behaviour.
Present verbal communication by the research team explaining key benefits of regular PA for health.
Material incentive (behaviour) (10.1)
Inform that money, vouchers or other valued objects will be delivered if and only if there has been effort and/or progress in performing the behaviour.
Inform intervention recipients that they are entered into a raffle to win prizes (e.g. vouchers or other valued objects) if and only if there has been progress and/or an effort to participate in the after-school PA programme.
Material reward (behaviour) (10.2)
Arrange for the delivery of money, vouchers or other valued objects if and only if there has been effort and/or progress in performing the behaviour.
Recipients that have made progress and/or an effort to participate in the after-school PA programme are entered into a raffle to win prizes (e.g. vouchers or other valued objects). Prizes are delivered to raffle-winners.
Non-specific reward (10.3)
Arrange delivery of a reward if and only if there has been effort and/or progress in performing the behaviour.
Recipients receive a researcher signed ‘Girls Active Project Certificate of Award’ for their participation.
Project Leaders (intervention providers) also receive a researcher signed ‘Girls Active Project Certificate of Achievement’ for their participation in the Girls Active Project.
Social reward (10.4)
Arrange verbal or non-verbal reward if and only if there has been effort and/or progress in performing the behaviour.
Congratulate intervention recipients after each exercise class that they participate in.
Non-specific incentive (10.6)
Inform that a reward will be delivered if and only if there has been effort and/or progress in performing the behaviour.
Inform intervention recipients that they will receive a (researcher) signed ‘Girls Active Project Certificate of Award’ for their participation in the Girls Active Project.
Restructuring the social environment (12.2)
Change, or advise to change the social environment in order to facilitate performance of the wanted behaviour or create barriers to the unwanted behaviour (other than prompts/cues, rewards and punishments).
Implement the Girls Active Project peer-led, after-school programme into the school environment to facilitate PA.
Include the Girls Active Project in the School PA policy to serve as the school’s commitment to support and encourage their students to participate in PA. The policy is agreed to by the principal and Steering Committee and signed by the school principal.
Advise the school that it is pre-arranged for an adult (e.g., Steering Committee member, physical education teacher, school staff, parent/guardian) to supervise the weekly programme. For the feasibility study, the researcher and physical education teacher will supervise the PA programme.
Verbal persuasion about capability (15.1)
Tell the person that they can successfully perform the wanted behaviour, arguing against self-doubts and asserting that they can and will succeed.
Empower, encourage and motivate intervention recipients to be physically active. Tell recipients that they can successfully increase their participation in PA, despite current fitness levels and/or capabilities.
  1. aBased on definitions reported in Michie et al. (2014)
  2. Abbreviations: PA Physical Activity, PE Physical Education, GAP Girls Active Project, BCT Behaviour Change Technique