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Table 3 Factors associated with lipid-lowering medications use

From: Prevalence and factors associated with lipid-lowering medications use for primary and secondary prevention of cardiovascular diseases among Malaysians: the REDISCOVER study

  Crude OR (95% CI) p-value Adjusted OR (95% CI) p-value
Age groups (years)
 30–39 1   1  
 40–49 2.00 (1.31–3.06) 0.001* 0.97 (0.53–1.78) 0.92
 50–59 4.47 (2.98–6.70) 0.000* 1.57 (0.86–2.87) 0.14
 ≥60 4.99 (3.32–7.49) 0.000* 1.69 (0.88–3.27) 0.12
Gender
 Male 1   1  
 Female 0.75 (0.65–0.87) 0.000* 1.00 (0.72–1.40) 0.98
Ethnicity
 Malay 1   1  
 Chinese 2.17 (1.80–2.61) 0.000* 1.49 (0.91–2.44) 0.11
 Indian 2.67 (1.95–3.66) 0.000* 1.25 (0.66–2.35) 0.49
 Indigenous 0.40 (0.30–0.55) 0.000* 1.34 (0.77–2.31) 0.30
Education attainment
 No formal education 1   1  
 Primary school 1.52 (1.14–2.03) 0.004* 1.10 (0.58–2.11) 0.770
 Secondary school 1.86 (1.42–2.44) 0.000* 2.46 (1.29–4.70) 0.006*
 Tertiary 2.78 (2.10–3.68) 0.000* 2.25 (1.06–4.78) 0.035*
Location
 Urban 1   1  
 Rural 0.34 (0.29–0.40) 0.000* 0.58 (0.41–0.82) 0.002*
Occupation
 Homemaker/unemployed 1   1  
 Semi-skilled 0.66 (0.56–0.78) 0.000* 0.87 (0.58–1.31) 0.516
 Skilled workers 1.16 (0.91–1.48) 0.239 1.12 (0.66–1.90) 0.680
 Managerial and Professional 1.56 (1.23–1.97) 0.000* 1.42 (0.78–2.60) 0.250
Household income group
 Bottom 40% (≤ RM 4849) 1   1  
 Middle 40% – Top 20% (≥ RM 4850) 2.80 (2.12–3.69) 0.000* 1.57 (0.99–2.50) 0.054
Smoking status
 Non-smoker 1   1  
 Previous smoker 0.59 (0.45–0.77) 0.000* 0.56 (0.33–0.95) 0.032*
 Current smoker 1.70 (1.40–2.06) 0.000* 1.18 (0.81–1.70) 0.386
Body mass index (kg/m2)
 Normal (18.5–22.9) 1   1  
 Underweight (< 18.5) 2.65 (1.23–5.73) 0.013* 0.33 (0.04–2.44) 0.274
 Overweight (23–27.4) 4.71 (2.21–10.03) 0.000* 1.71 (1.11–2.64) 0.015*
 Obese (≥ 27.5) 5.65 (2.65–12.03) 0.000* 1.80 (1.15–2.83) 0.010*
Waist-hip ratio
 Normal 1   1  
 Abdominal obesity (Male ≥0.90; female ≥0.85) 1.96 (1.67–2.29) 0.000* 1.40 (1.03–1.92) 0.032*
Diabetes
 No 1   1  
 Yes 3.44 (2.96–4.01) 0.000* 2.38 (1.78–3.19) 0.000*
Hypertension
 No 1   1  
 Yes 2.98 (2.54–3.50) 0.000* 2.87 (2.09–3.95) 0.000*
Cardiovascular diseases (CVD)
 No 1   1  
 Yes 4.99 (4.09–6.10) 0.000* 3.30 (2.26–4.84) 0.000*
Hypercholesterolaemia
 No 1   1  
 Yes 0.85 (0.73–0.98) 0.029* 1.27 (0.83–1.95) 0.274
High LDL-c
 No 1   1  
 Yes 0.70 (0.60–0.81) 0.000 0.66 (0.44–0.98) 0.037*
Hypertriglyceridaemia
 No 1   1  
 Yes 1.24 (1.07–1.44) 0.005 1.11 (0.82–1.50) 0.496
Low HDL-c
 No 1   1  
 Yes 0.77 (0.65–0.90) 0.001 0.72 (0.53–0.99) 0.039*
  1. Abbreviation: OR Odds ratio
  2. Variables included in multiple logistic regression model: age, gender, ethnicity, education, location (urban/rural), occupation, household income, smoking status, body mass index, waist-hip ratio, diabetes, hypertension, CVD, dyslipidaemia subtypes (hypercholesterolaemia, high LDL-c, hypertriglyceridaemia, low HDL-c. No significant interactions
  3. *Significant at p < 0.05