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Table 1 Characteristics of the study participantsa

From: Physical activity and carotid atherosclerosis risk reduction in population with high risk for cardiovascular diseases: a cross-sectional study

Variables Total Carotid artery P value
Normal Abnormal
Number (%) 10,920 5194 (47.6) 5726 (52.4)  
Male, No. (%) 4613 (42.2) 1955 (37.6) 2658 (46.4) <0.001
Age, mean (SD), years 59.3 (8.9) 56.1 (8.8) 62.2 (7.9) <0.001
WC, mean (SD), cm 86.8 (9.5) 86.3 (9.4) 87.2 (9.6) <0.001
BMI, mean (SD), kg/m2 26.4 (3.4) 26.4 (3.4) 26.4 (3.4) 0.650
SBP, mean (SD), mmHg 163.9 (19.9) 164.1 (20.2) 166.2 (19.3) <0.001
DBP, mean (SD), mmHg 90.9 (12.2) 91.7 (12.2) 90.2 (12.2) <0.001
Fasting glucose, mean (SD), mmol/L 6.6 (2.0) 6.4 (1.8) 6.7 (2.1) <0.001
TC, mean (SD), mmol/L 4.92 (1.18) 4.85 (1.17) 4.98 (1.18) <0.001
HDL-C, mean (SD), mmol/L 1.34 (0.44) 1.33 (0.45) 1.35 (0.44) 0.073
TG, mean (SD), mmol/L 1.71 (0.97) 1.73 (1.00) 1.69 (0.95) 0.287
LDL-C, mean (SD), mmol/L 2.78 (0.97) 2.71 (0.95) 2.84 (0.99) <0.001
Household income, No. (%), Yuan/year     <0.001
 <10,000 1860 (17.0) 703 (13.5) 1157 (20.2)  
 10000-50000 5965 (54.6) 2857 (55.0) 3108 (54.3)  
 ≥50,000 3095 (28.4) 1634 (31.5) 1461 (25.5)  
Education, No. (%)     <0.001
 Primary or lower 6152 (56.3) 2655 (51.1) 3497 (61.1)  
 Secondary school 4358 (39.9) 2287 (44.0) 2071 (36.2)  
 College or above 410 (3.8) 252 (4.9) 158 (2.7)  
Current smoker, No. (%) 2422 (22.2) 980 (18.9) 1442 (25.2) <0.001
Alcohol drinker, No. (%) 3214 (29.4) 1401 (27.0) 1813 (31.7) <0.001
Physical activity level, mean (SD), MET-h/d 16.8 (13.8) 18.6 (14.4) 15.1 (13.1) <0.001
Sedentary leisure time, mean (SD), h/d 1.9 (1.2) 1.9 (1.2) 1.9 (1.2) 0.562
CIMT, mean (SD), mm 0.7 (0.3) 0.6 (0.1) 0.8 (0.3) <0.001
  1. aWC, waist circumference; BMI, body mass index; SBP, systolic blood pressure; DBP, diastolic blood pressure; TC, total cholesterol; HDL-C, high-density lipoprotein cholesterol; TG, triglyceride; LDL-C, low-density lipoprotein cholesterol; CIMT, carotid intima-media thickness.