Skip to main content

Table 2 Hazard ratios (HR) and all-cause mortality according to intake categories of healthy Nordic food groups. From: Non-linear associations between healthy Nordic foods and all-cause mortality in the NOWAC study: a prospective study

From: Non-linear associations between healthy Nordic foods and all-cause mortality in the NOWAC study: a prospective study

Healthy Nordic food groups Intake categories (g/day) Total N No. of deaths All-cause mortality
Age-adjusted* Multivariable-adjusted model** P for trend
HR (95% CI) HR (95% CI)  
Nordic fruits and vegetables  < 100 20 537 2 530 1.00 1.00 0.94
100–199 32 501 3 168 0.79 (0.75–0.83) 0.91 (0.87–0.96)
200–299 18 904 1 787 0.77 (0.72–0.82) 0.96 (0.90–1.02)
 ≥ 300 11 727 1 022 0.78 (0.73–0.84) 1.00 (0.91–1.08)
Wholegrain products  < 60 14 724 1 419 1.00 1.00 0.02
60–119 24 439 2 669 0.91 (0.85–0.97) 0.96 (0.90–1.03)
120–179 16 071 1 550 0.78 (0.73–0.83) 0.91 (0.84–0.98)
 ≥ 180 28 435 2 869 0.84 (0.79–0.90) 0.89 (0.82–0.97)
Fatty fish  < 5 23 792 2 497 1.00 1.00 0.17
5–14 25 882 2 517 0.94 (0.89–1.00) 1.01 (0.95–1.07)
15–29 22 074 2 090 0.90 (0.85–0.96) 0.99 (0.93–1.05)
 ≥ 30 11 921 1 403 0.98 (0.92–1.05) 1.06 (0.99–1.14)
Lean fish  < 15 28 254 2 529 1.00 1.00 0.04
15–29 22 562 2 023 0.92 (0.87–0.97) 0.96 (0.91–1.02)
30–44 14 841 1 469 0.93 (0.87–0.99) 0.99 (0.92–1.05)
 ≥ 45 18 012 2 486 0.95 (0.90–1.01) 0.93 (0.88–0.99)
Low-fat dairy products Non-consumers 13 916 1 554 1.00 1.00 0.14
 < 200 34 848 3 078 0.79 (0.74–0.84) 0.91 (0.85–0.96)
200–399 18 203 1 883 0.78 (0.73–0.84) 0.96 (0.90–1.03)
 ≥ 400 16 702 1 992 0.84 (0.78–0.90) 0.99 (0.92–1.06)
  1. HR hazard ratio, CI confidence interval
  2. *Age-adjusted with age as underlying timescale and subcohorts (n = 5) included as strata variable
  3. **Age-adjusted and mutually adjusted for the healthy Nordic food groups, BMI < 20, 20–24.9, 25–29.9, ≥ 30 (kg/m2), physical activity (low, medium, high), smoking status (never, current heavy smoker early starter, current moderate smoker early starter, current smoker late starter, former smoker early starter, former smoker late starter), education (< 10, 10–12, > 12 years of schooling) intake of energy (kJ/day continuous), alcohol (non-consumer, 0–5, > 5 g/day), and processed red meat (< 15, 15–29, 30–44, ≥ 45 g/day)