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Table 1 The characteristics of the included studies in the meta-analysis

From: Dietary patterns and risk of bladder cancer: a systematic review and meta-analysis

Author Year Location Study design Sex (n%) Follow up duration Sample size and characteristics Mean Age Method of analysis invasive or non-invasive diet components Dietary patterns investigated and associated risk
Schulpen, et al 2019 Netherlands Cohort Men 48%
Women 52%
20.3 years 2049 cases
4,084 sub cohort members
55–69 Trichopoulou 996 invasive/1053 non-invasive Proxy of MD: vegetables, legumes, fruits, nuts, whole grains, fish, the ratio of MUFA to saturated fatty acids MD (HR = 1.00, 95% CI:0.92,1.09) total
Witlox, et al 2020 European Countries Cohort Men 47%
Women 53%
6,577,179 person years 3639 cases/642,583 non-case younger than 70 years Trichopoulou 1480 non-invasive/945 invasive fruits, vegetables, legumes and cereals, moderate-to-high consumption of fish, moderate consumption of alcohol (mostly wine), low-to-moderate consumption of milk and dairy products, and low consumption of meat and meat products MD (HR = 0.85,95% CI: 0.77, 0.93)
Bravi, et al 2018 Italy Case–control Men 85%
Women 15%
NA 690 cases/665 controls 25–84 Trichopoulou 268 non-invasive/ 192 pT1/ 159 invasive/ 307 moderately or well differentiated/ 312undifferentiated or poorly differentiated olive oil, fruits, vegetables, legumes, and whole grain cereals MD (OR = 0.66,95% CI:0.47–0.93)
Buckland, et al 2014 EPIC Cohort Men 30%
Women 70%
11 years 1575 cases
475,737 non cases
51.2 6 ± 9.9 Trichopoulou 430 were aggressive and 413 were non-aggressive UCC tumors and for 582 subject’s tumor aggressiveness was unknown (n 5 52) or not validated (n 5 530) fruit, nuts and seeds, vegetables, legumes, fish, olive oil and cereals (dairy products and meat, calculated as a function of energy) MD (HR = 0.84, 95% CI: 0.69, 1.03)
Brinkman, et al 2011 Belgium Case–control Men69%
Women 31%
NA 200 cases/386 controls cases 67.6 ± 9.9 controls 64.2 ± 9.6 PCA no data dietary fat, meat, olive oil, fish, eggs, milk, cheese, margarine WD (OR: 1.11, 95% CI:0.67–1.83)
Dugué, et al 2016 Australia Cohort Men 41%
Women 59%
21.3 years 379 Cases/37063 Non-cases 27 to 76 Trichopoulou 165 invasive/ 214 superficial MD: vegetables, fruits, cereals, legumes, and fish MD:( HR = 0.97, 95% CI: 0.88–1.08
Dianatinasab, et al 2020 Australia, European Countries and united states Cohort Men 33%
Women 67%
11.4 years 3401cases /577 367 non-cases 52.7 years (± 10.2) for cases and 60.5 (± 7.3) 52.6 (± 10.1) for controls priori 1365 no muscle-invasive / 874 muscle-invasive Cream, Egg, Red and processed meet, Butter, Margarine, Animal fat, Pasta, Sugar, Dressing, Dips, Vegetables, Fruits, Fluid WD (HR = 1.54, 95% CI: 1.37–1.72)
Westhoff, et al 2018 Texas Cohort Men 80%
Women 20%
median of 65.7 months 595 case no restrictions on age factor analysis only 595 non-invasive selected then 120 progressed to muscle-invasive bladder cancer during study western: Cornbread, Black eyed peas, Fried chicken, Fried fish, Okra, Gravy, Canned chili, green beans, French fries, bacon, corn, hamburgers, beef, pork, potato, sausages, wine/ fruit and vegetables WD (HR = 1.48,95% CI:1.06–2.06)
Stefani, et al 2008 Uruguay Case–control Men 88%
Women 12%
NA 255 cases/501 controls 30–89 factor analysis no data sweet beverage: coffee, tea, and added sugar/western patter: red meat, fried eggs, potatoes, and red wine/prudent pattern: fresh vegetables, cooked vegetables, and fruits WD (OR = 2.35, 95% CI 1.42–3.89 MD (OR = 1.06, 95% CI 0.67–1.68)
Shivappa, et al 2019 Iran Case–control Men 92%
Women 8%
NA 56 cases/109 controls 48–73 Multivariate analyses no data bread, rice, meat, fish and Dietary inflammatory index (DII) score > –0.12 (OR = 2.46; 95% CI:1.12–5.41) among current/ex-smokers (OR DII (> –0.12/ –0.12) 3.30; 95% CI¼1.07–10.16
Abufaraj, et al 2019 United States Cohort Men 20%
Women 80%
23 years 1,042 cases/ 218,074 non-case 25–75 EDIP score assessment no data red meat, processed meat, all vegetables, fish, high energy beverages, carbonated beverages, low energy beverages, tomatoes, beer; wine; tea; coffee; dark yellow vegetables, snacks; fruit juice; and pizza DII (RR = 0.92, 95% CI: 0.75–1.12)
Shivappa, et al 2017 Italy Case–control Men 84%
Women 16%
NA 690 cases/665 controls 25–80 factor analysis 460 noninvasive/159 invasive/ 307 moderately or well differentiated/ 312undifferentiated or poorly differentiated carbohydrates, proteins, fats, alcohol, fibers, cholesterol, saturated fatty acids, monounsaturated fatty acids, polyunsaturated fatty acids, omega 3, omega 6, niacin, thiamin, riboflavin, vitamin B6, iron, zinc, vitamin A, vitamin C, vitamin D, vitamin E, folic acid, beta carotene, anthocyanidins, flavan3ols, flavonols, flavanones, flavones, isoflavones, caffeine, and tea DII (OR Continuous = 1.11, 95% CI = 1.03, 1.20)/ (OR Quartile4vs1 = 1.97, 95% CI = 1.28, 3.03)
Author Year Events followed Diagnostic criteria MD/WD compliance assessment method Variables for adjustment
Schulpen, et al 2019 Bladder Cancer Risk record linkage with the Netherlands cancer Registry and the nationwide
Dutch Pathology Registry
FFQ age, sex
Witlox, et al 2020 Bladder Cancer Risk pathology confirmed cases FFQ sex, age, smoking, total energy intake
Bravi, et al 2018 Bladder Cancer Risk incident diagnosis of urothelial carcinoma of the bladder (93%histologically confirmed) FFQ Age, sex, BMI, study center, year of interview, Education, Smoking, non-alcohol energy intake, History of Diabetes, History of Cystitis, Family history of bladder cancer
Buckland, et al 2014 Bladder Cancer Risk All newly diagnosed by pathology reports dietary questionnaires smoking, dietary energy
Brinkman, et al 2011 Bladder Cancer Risk histologically confirmed with transitional cell carcinoma FFQ age, sex, smoking characteristics, occupational exposures, calorie intake
Dugué, et al 2016 Bladder Cancer Risk identified from Victorian cancer registry and the Australian Cancer Database FFQ sex, country of birth, smoking, alcohol consumption, body mass index physical activity, education, and socioeconomic status
Dianatinasab, et al 2020 Bladder Cancer Risk the International Classification of Diseases for Oncology (ICD-O-3 code C67) using population-based cancer registries, health insurance records or medical records FFQ total energy intake in kilocalories, sex, smoking status (never, former or current smoker) and smoking intensity, fluid, vegetables and fruits intake
Westhoff, et al 2018 risk of recurrence and progression in non- muscle-invasive bladder cancer newly histologically confirmed NMIBC FFQ age, sex, education, income, body mass index, smoking status and intensity, total energy intake, grade, tumor multiplicity, concomi- tant carcinoma in situ, and treatment
Stefani, et al 2008 Bladder Cancer Risk newly diagnosed and micro- scopically confirmed cases of transitional cell carcinoma of the bladder with hospitalized controls FFQ age, sex, residence, urban/rural status, education, family history of bladder cancer, high-risk occupation, body mass index, years smoked, and total energy intake
Shivappa, et al 2019 Bladder Cancer Risk histologically confirmed cases FFQ age, sex, body mass index (BMI), physical activity, smoking status, alcohol use and family history of cancer
Abufaraj, et al 2019 Bladder Cancer Risk confirmed by retrieving relevant medical records FFQ age, energy intake, smoking status, fluid intake, nonsteroidal anti- inflammatory drug use, pregnancy, menopausal status, age at menopause
Shivappa, et al 2017 Bladder Cancer Risk histologically confirmed cases of BC FFQ age, sex, year of interview, study center, and total energy intake, education, smoking