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Table 1 Characteristics of the study sample (N = 4148)

From: Prospective associations between alcohol consumption and psychological well-being in midlife

  Total Weekly units of alcohol at baseline
  0 units 1-14 units 15-21 units ≥ 22 units p-value a
Total N = 4003 280 (7.0) 2136 (53.4) 670 (16.7) 917 (22.9)  
Sociodemographic factors
Age (mean [SD]) 51.7 (3.0) 51.5 (3.5) 51.6 (3.3) 51.6 (2.6) 51.6 (2.5) 0.821
Sex (N [%])       < 0.001
 Male 3336 (80.4) 183 (65.4) 1592 (74.5) 594 (88.7) 860 (93.8)  
 Female 812 (19.6) 97 (34.6) 544 (25.5) 76 (11.3) 57 (6.2)  
Cohort (N [%])       < 0.001
 MP cohort 2746 (66.2) 148 (52.9) 1282 (60.0) 512 (76.4) 727 (79.3)  
 DALWUH cohort 1402 (33.8) 132 (47.1) 854 (40.0) 158 (23.6) 190 (20.7)  
Educational level (N [%])       < 0.001
 Low 527 (12.8) 67 (23.9) 234 (11.0) 73 (10.9) 115 (12.6)  
 Medium 1949 (47.3) 127 (45.4) 1006 (47.5) 306 (45.7) 441 (48.2)  
 High 1643 (39.9) 86 (30.7) 879 (41.5) 291 (43.4) 358 (39.2)  
Currently employed (N [%])       < 0.001
 Yes 3782 (91.5) 214 (76.4) 1994 (93.7) 634 (94.6) 835 (91.1)  
 No 353 (8.5) 66 (23.6) 134 (6.3) 36 (5.4) 82 (8.9)  
Other lifestyle factors
Smoking (N [%])       < 0.001
 Current smoker 1282 (31.4) 112 (40.0) 534 (25.0) 188 (28.1) 403 (44.1)  
 Ex-smoker 1438 (35.1) 88 (31.4) 750 (35.2) 274 (40.9) 302 (33.0)  
 Never-smoker 1370 (33.5) 80 (28.6) 848 (39.8) 208 (31.0) 209 (22.9)  
Leisure time physical activity (N [%])       < 0.001
 Heavy/moderate exercise 1219 (29.9) 81 (28.9) 671 (31.6) 211 (31.5) 231 (25.3)  
 Light exercise 2343 (57.4) 146 (52.1) 1202 (56.6) 384 (57.3) 559 (61.2)  
 Sedentary activities 521 (12.8) 53 (18.9) 250 (11.8) 75 (11.2) 124 (13.6)  
Body Mass Index (N [%])       0.002
 <  30 kg/m2 3641 (89.4) 227 (84.1) 1890 (89.8) 606 (92.4) 805 (89.2)  
 ≥ 30 kg/m2 431 (10.6) 43 (15.9) 214 (10.2) 50 (7.6) 97 (10.8)  
Social relations       
Children (N [%])       < 0.001
 Yes 3504 (84.8) 225 (80.4) 1860 (87.5) 559 (83.4) 752 (82.0)  
 No 626 (15.2) 55 (19.6) 265 (12.5) 111 (16.6) 165 (18.0)  
Living alone (N [%])       < 0.001
 Yes 640 (15.5) 79 (28.2) 278 (13.1) 74 (11.1) 161 (17.7)  
 No 3478 (84.5) 201 (71.8) 1844 (86.9) 591 (88.9) 750 (82.3)  
Rarely have someone to talk well with (N [%])       0.062
 Yes 35 (0.9) 6 (2.1) 15 (0.7) 4 (0.6) 6 (0.7)  
 No 4081 (99.2) 274 (97.9) 2108 (99.3) 662 (99.4) 903 (99.3)  
Morbidity
Self-rated health (N [%])       < 0.001
 Low 399 (9.7) 67 (24.2) 159 (7.5) 42 (6.3) 87 (9.6)  
 Medium 3180 (77.6) 184 (66.4) 1668 (79.0) 532 (80.2) 718 (79.2)  
 High 518 (12.6) 26 (9.4) 285 (13.5) 89 (13.4) 101 (11.1)  
Charlson Comorbidity Index score (N [%])       0.005
 0 3880 (93.5) 252 (90.0) 2017 (94.4) 640 (95.5) 853 (93.0)  
 1 136 (3.3) 14 (5.0) 54 (2.5) 17 (2.5) 40 (4.4)  
 ≥ 2 132 (3.2) 14 (5.0) 65 (3.0) 13 (1.9) 24 (2.6)  
Psychiatric hospital diagnoses (N [%])       < 0.001
 Yes 131 (3.2) 26 (9.3) 40 (1.9) 13 (1.9) 27 (2.9)  
 No 4017 (96.8) 254 (90.7) 2096 (98.1) 657 (98.1) 890 (97.1)  
Alcohol consumption (exposure variable)
Binge drinking (N [%])b       < 0.001
 < once per month 712 (26.7) 106 (71.6) 507 (40.0) 55 (10.8) 27 (3.8)  
 1-3 times per month 1095 (41.1) 37 (25.0) 628 (49.6) 258 (50.6) 170 (23.7)  
 ≥ once per week 858 (32.2) 5 (3.4) 131 (10.3) 197 (38.6) 521 (72.6)  
  1. 1 unit corresponds to 12 g of pure alcohol
  2. a χ2 test for categorical and one-way ANOVA for continuous variables
  3. b Only including men from the Metropolit 1953 Danish male birth cohort (N = 2746) as information on binge drinking was not available in the Danish Longitudinal Study on Work, Unemployment and Health cohort