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Table 2 Participants’ characteristics by sugar-sweetened beverages consumption categories

From: Sugar-sweetened beverages consumption among New Zealand children aged 8-12 years: a cross sectional study of sources and associates/correlates of consumption

  Total n = 578 Sugar-sweetened beverages
(Servings per week)
P-value a
< 1 serving n = 23 1-4 servings n = 266 ≥5 servings n = 289
Age (y), mean ± SD 9.9 ± 0.7 9.8 ± 0.7 9.8 ± 0.7 9.9 ± 0.7 0.32
Sex, n (%)      0.16
 Boys 265 (46) 8 (3) 114 (43) 143 (54)  
 Girls 313 (54) 15 (5) 152 (49) 146 (47)  
Ethnicity, n (%), n = 571      < 0.0001
 European 231 (41) 16 (7) 143 (62) 72 (31)  
 Māori 59 (10) 0 (0) 20 (34) 39 (66)  
 Pacifica 122 (21) 2 (2) 21 (24) 99 (75)  
 Asianc 138 (24) 5 (4) 61 (44) 72 (52)  
 Othersd 21 (4) 0 (0) 9 (43) 12 (57)  
School deciles, n (%)      < 0.0001
 Low 147 (26) 1 (1) 26 (18) 120 (81)  
 Medium 192 (33) 7 (4) 86 (45) 99 (51)  
 High 239 (41) 15 (6) 154 (64) 170 (30)  
School policy      < 0.0001e
 Water-only 478 (83) 14 (3) 204 (43) 260 (54)  
 Not water-only 100 (17) 9 (9) 62 (62) 29 (29)  
Anthropometric measures, n = 561
 Height (m) 1.4 (1.4, 1.5) 1.4 (1.3, 1.5) 1.4 (1.4, 1.5) 1.4 (1.4, 1.5) 0.09
 Weight (kg) 36 (31, 44) 34 (29, 35) 35 (30, 40) 37 (32, 47) < 0.01
 BMI (kg/m2) 17 (16, 20) 16 (16, 19) 17 (16, 19) 18 (16, 21) < 0.0001
 WC (cm) 60 (56, 67) 58 (56, 65) 58 (54, 63) 63 (57, 70)b < 0.0001
 % Body fatf 21 (16, 28) 19 (14, 27) 19 (15, 25) 22 (17, 30)b < 0.0001
  Lowest, < 21%, n (%) 301 (54) 16 (5) 163 (54) 122 (41) < 0.0001
  Highest, ≥21%, n (%) 260 (46) 7 (3) 94 (36) 159 (61)  
  1. Values are median (25th, 75th percentiles), unless otherwise stated
  2. BMI body mass index, SD standard deviation, WC waist circumference
  3. aKruskal-Wallis tests for continuous variables and Pearson’s chi-squared for categorical variables
  4. bCompared to the first category (less than one serving of sugar-sweetened beverages per week), significantly different at P < 0.05
  5. cIncludes: South East Asian (Indonesian, Thai, Singaporean, Malaysian, Pilipino, and Laotian), South Asian (Indian, Pakistani, Sri Lankan, and Bangladeshi) and East Asian (Chinese, Taiwanese, Korean, and Japanese)
  6. dIncludes: Middle Eastern, Latin American, and African
  7. eThere was no association when the analysis was adjusted for school decile, P > 0.05
  8. fCategorised based on the median BF% of population