Skip to main content

Table 2 Bivariate analysis of socio-demographic characteristics, oral health related behaviors with standardized prevalence of dental caries and mean DMFT scores in children aged 12 years in China in 2005 and 2015 surveys

From: Trend on dental caries status and its risk indicators in children aged 12 years in China: a multilevel analysis based on the repeated national cross-sectional surveys in 2005 and 2015

  Prevalence of dental caries a DMFT scores b
2005 (n=12350) 2015 (n=27818) 2005 (n=12350) 2015 (n=27818)
Prevalence (%) and 95% CI Prevalence (%) and 95% CI Mean (SD) Mean (SD)
Total 27.05 (24.25-28.85) 37.92 (34.94-40.90) 0.50 (1.04) 0.83 (1.45)
Level-1 (individual) indicators
Sex
Male 23.50 (20.58-26.42)*** 33.40 (30.75-36.04)*** 0.41 (0.95)*** 0.67 (1.25)***
Female 30.83 (27.68-33.97) 42.67 (39.17-46.17) 0.58 (1.13) 1.00 (1.62)
Ethnicity
Han 27.07 (24.32-29.81) 37.52 (34.52-40.52)*** 0.49 (1.01) 0.82 (1.44)*
Other 26.89 (18.38-35.41) 44.12 (39.52-48.73) 0.57 (1.34) 1.01 (1.63)
Location of residence
Urban 28.56 (26.02-31.11) 37.39 (33.29-41.49) 0.52 (1.02) 0.84 (1.47)
Rural 26.55 (23.44-29.67) 38.14 (35.13-41.15) 0.49 (1.05) 0.83 (1.44)
Only child
Yes 27.91 (24.74-31.07) 36.99 (32.75-41.24) 0.51 (1.04) 0.82 (1.45)
No 26.55 (23.32-29.79) 38.35 (35.26-41.44) 0.49 (1.05) 0.84 (1.45)
Parental highest education attainment
Junior high school or below 26.37 (22.27-30.47)** 36.73 (31.75-41.72) 0.48 (0.97)* 0.78 (1.39)
High school 26.37 (23.46-29.28) 38.39 (35.52-41.26) 0.48 (1.02) 0.84 (1.45)
Tertiary or bachelor degree or above 29.99 (27.05-32.92) 36.17 (33.20-39.14) 0.58 (1.21) 0.82 (1.49)
Unknown or orphan 32.94 (28.03-37.85) 38.87 (34.28-43.47) 0.62 (1.08) 0.87 (1.48)
Toothbrushing frequency
Twice or more per day 29.13 (25.51-32.75)** 39.85 (36.75-42.95)** 0.53(1.02) 0.92(1.57)**
Once a day or less 26.44 (23.79-29.09) 37.08 (33.97-40.19) 0.49(1.05) 0.79(1.39)
Use of dental floss
No or do not know 27.30 (24.57-30.04) 37.71 (34.82-40.60) 0.50 (1.05) 0.82 (1.44)*
Yes 23.76 (18.11-29.40) 40.29 (35.34-45.25) 0.43 (0.95) 0.96 (1.62)
Frequency of toothache within the past 12 months
Often 39.19 (30.82-47.56)*** 54.48 (49.27-59.68)*** 0.77 (1.24)*** 1.50 (1.97)***
Occasionally 30.68 (26.97-34.39) 42.55 (39.26-45.84) 0.59 (1.16) 0.98 (1.58)
Never 22.45 (19.89-25.02) 30.29 (27.30-33.28) 0.38 (0.86) 0.58 (1.15)
Can't remember 25.04 (21.42-28.67) 34.34 (30.58-38.11) 0.45 (1.01) 0.71 (1.32)
Time of last dental visit
Within 6 months 32.13 (26.57-37.69)*** 48.76 (43.95-53.58)*** 0.63 (1.19)*** 1.27 (1.89)***
Within 6 to 12 months 31.79 (27.38-36.21) 46.20 (43.44-48.96) 0.59 (1.21) 1.07 (1.59)
More than 12 months 30.52 (27.28-33.76) 40.24 (36.72-43.76) 0.58 (1.12) 0.88 (1.48)
Never 23.74 (21.29-26.19) 31.67 (28.87-34.48) 0.42 (0.94) 0.63 (1.21)
Dental fluorosis
Yes 24.20 (20.98-27.43)* 37.10 (33.89-40.31) 0.41 (0.96)** 0.76 (1.33)
No 27.71 (24.75-30.68) 38.04 (34.72-41.35) 0.52 (1.06) 0.84 (1.48)
Frequency of sweet snack intake
Occasionally/ never 25.14 (22.50-27.78)*** 34.00 (30.68-37.33)*** 0.48 (1.05)** 0.69 (1.25)***
Less than 2 times per week 25.01 (22.64-27.38) 36.21 (33.10-39.33) 0.44 (0.99) 0.77 (1.38)
2 to 6 times per week 29.79 (26.23-33.35) 38.61 (35.68-41.53) 0.54 (1.01) 0.85 (1.49)
More than 6 times per week 29.07 (25.25-32.90) 40.40 (36.90-43.91) 0.54 (1.08) 0.93 (1.55)
Level-2 (province) indicators
Economic development
GDP per capita, quartile 1 24.48 (17.11-31.86)** 34.84 (24.70-44.98) 0.48 (1.14)* 0.74 (1.33)*
GDP per capita, quartile 2 21.53 (18.51-24.55) 40.25 (32.32-48.19) 0.36 (0.82) 0.89 (1.51)
GDP per capita, quartile 3 29.56 (24.01-35.11) 38.07 (32.53-43.62) 0.55 (1.09) 0.82 (1.40)
GDP per capita, quartile 4 30.82 (25.90-35.74) 38.20 (32.68-43.71) 0.56 (1.03) 0.86 (1.54)
Region
North China 25.46 (22.75-28.17)* 36.42 (29.81-43.03)*** 0.41 (0.86) 0.76 (1.32)***
Northeast China 36.12 (22.46-49.78) 51.33 (40.43-62.24) 0.73 (1.31) 1.31 (1.86)
East China 28.37 (21.46-35.28) 34.45 (26.83-42.06) 0.50 (0.99) 0.74 (1.39)
Middlesouth (Central) China 27.23 (18.41-36.06) 38.39 (32.69-44.09) 0.52 (1.10) 0.82 (1.42)
Southwest China 22.50 (17.30-27.70) 40.83 (33.82-47.83) 0.43 (1.06) 0.93 (1.53)
Northwest China 22.70 (13.72-31.68) 31.68 (20.29-43.07) 0.38 (0.86) 0.63 (1.22)
  1. CI = Confidence interval; SD = Standard deviation; GDP = Gross domestic product (per CNY 10,000);
  2. DMFT = Decayed, Missing, and Filled Teeth
  3. aValues were calculated comparing prevalence between years using Rao-Scott χ2 test considering weight and clustering
  4. bp-values were calculated comparing means of DMFT scores between years using t-test or ANOVA considering weight and clustering
  5. * P < 0.05; ** P <0.01; *** P < 0.001