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Table 1 Socio-demographic characteristics and hypertension among Ghanaian women (n = 9333)

From: Rural-urban variation in hypertension among women in Ghana: insights from a national survey

Variable Sample
n %
Hypertension
Urban Rural
n(%) n(%)
Age (X2 = 463.590; p < 0.001)
 15–19 1621 17.3 55.5 44.5
 20–24 1599 17.2 66.4 33.6
 25–29 1597 17.1 65.0 35.0
 30–34 1362 14.6 71.2 28.8
 35–39 1283 13.8 66.6 33.4
 40–44 1022 11.0 65.8 34.2
45–49 849 9.1 61.0 39.0
Wealth quintile (X2 = 22.185; p < 0.001)
 Poorest 1505 16.1 13.8 86.2
 Poorer 1630 17.5 19.2 80.8
 Middle 1924 20.6 50.8 49.2
 Richer 2099 22.5 81.2 18.8
 Richest 2175 23.3 97.9 2.1
Marital Status (X2 = 241.297; p < 0.001)
 Single 3081 33.0 72.9 27.1
 Married 3936 42.2 64.2 35.8
 Cohabiting 1342 14.4 58.5 41.5
 Widowed 250 2.7 66.0 34.0
 Divorced 280 3.0 61.8 38.2
 Separated 444 4.7 69.5 30.5
Education (X2 = 850.914; p < 0.001)
 No education 1782 19.1 40.9 59.1
 Primary 1664 17.8 58.2 41.8
 Secondary 5300 56.8 72.8 27.2
 Higher 587 6.3 85.6 14.4
Occupation (X2 = 70.488; p < 0.001)
 Not working 2183 23.4 64.3 35.7
 Agriculture 1746 18.7 18.7 81.3
 Manual 1146 12.3 68.4 31.6
 Service 4258 45.6 77.5 22.5
Salted fish consumption (X2 = 0.350; p = 0.554)
 No 6011 64.4 66.3 33.7
 Yes 3322 35.6 63.1 36.9
Region (X2 = 37.553; p < 0.001)
 Western 1037 11.1 41.5 58.5
 Central 932 10.0 47.0 53.0
 Greater Accra 1888 20.2 92.2 7.8
 Volta 717 7.7 36.8 63.2
 Eastern 867 9.3 54.3 45.7
 Ashanti 1775 19.0 71.9 28.1
 Brong Ahafo 766 8.2 63.9 36.1
 Northern 783 8.4 36.6 63.4
 Upper East 357 3.8 34.9 65.1
 Upper West 211 2.3 44.2 55.8
Tobacco use (X2 = 0.266, p = 0.606)
 No 9295 99.6 65.2 34.8
 Yes 38 0.4 28.6 71.4
  1. Source: 2014 GDHS