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Table 7 Estimated contributions of change in mean variable levels overtime to linear growth change among urban poor (2000-2018)

From: Understanding urban inequalities in children’s linear growth outcomes: a trend and decomposition analysis of 39,049 children in Bangladesh (2000-2018)

  1 2 3 4 5 6
Variable Estimated association of factor with HAZ in pooled urban sample Baseline levels among urban poor, 2000 (%) Endline levels among urban poor,
2018 (%)
Observed change in variable (2000-2018), % points (3)-(2)/100 Predicted change in HAZ due to variable change (1)*(4) Variable’s contribution to observed change in HAZ (%) [0.68]
N (weighted)   348 424  
Mean HAZ (outcome) -2.17 (SD) -1.49 (SD) 0.68 (SD)   100%
Child sex (female) 0.054* 49.41 48.08 -0.013 -0.001 -0.15
Child’s age
0-11 months Ref. 19.75 22.79 0.030 - -
12-23 months -0.714*** 22.16 20.74 -0.014 0.010 1.47
24-59 months -0.810*** 58.08 56.48 -0.016 0.013 1.91
Maternal education (no/ primary edu.) -0.213*** 88.23 53.57 -0.347 0.074 10.88
Maternal media exposure (not at all) 0.026 34.69 52.71 0.180 0.005 0.74
Maternal autonomy level (low) -0.071* 39.52 23.52 -0.160 0.011 1.62
Maternal BMI
Normal Ref. 53.56 61.50 0.079 - -
Underweight -0.272*** 44.25 17.98 -0.263 0.072 10.59
Overweight 0.234*** 2.19 20.52 0.183 0.043 6.32
Maternal Stature
Normal/tall (155-<200cm) Ref. 17.26 16.39 -0.009 - -
Short (145 to<155cm) -0.497*** 62.19 66.69 0.045 -0.022 -3.24
Very short (<145cm) -1.016*** 20.55 16.92 -0.036 0.037 5.44
Maternal age at first child’s birth (≤17 yrs) -0.071** 65.30 50.45 -0.149 0.011 1.62
No. children living with mother (≥4) -0.142** 21.80 10.18 -0.116 0.017 2.50
Child’s place of delivery (home) -0.209*** 92.97 66.59 -0.264 0.055 8.09
Child not vaccinated (measles) -0.239*** 24.95 11.54 -0.134 0.032 4.71
Household toilet type (not improved) -0.030 62.89 49.72 -0.132 0.004 0.59
Household water source (not improved) 0.222^ 1.71 3.13 0.014 0.003 0.44
Division
Others Ref. 41.27 54.40 0.131 - -
Dhaka -0.096* 29.69 14.73 -0.150 0.014 2.06
Chittagong -0.132** 29.04 30.87 0.018 -0.002 -0.29
Household size (≥7 members) -0.003 29.91 25.99 -0.039 0.000 0.00
National Wealth Index
Richest Ref. - - - - -
Richer -0.205*** 19.11 - -0.191 0.039 5.74
Middle -0.192** 34.57 23.57 -0.110 0.021 3.09
Poorer -0.221** 28.31 32.07 0.038 -0.008 -1.18
Poorest -0.379*** 18.01 44.36 0.264 -0.100 -14.71
Total      0.328 48.24
  1. Notes: HAZ: height-for-age z score; SD: standard deviation; ^p ≤0.1; *p ≤0.05; ** p ≤0.01; *** p ≤0.001
  2. Column 4 shows the changes in mean variable levels among urban poor between 2000 and 2018. The predicted change in HAZ due to the change in mean variable levels among urban poor children (in column 5) was obtained by multiplying the change in variable (column 4) with its factor coefficient from Table 5 (column 1). Column 6 shows the predicted change in HAZ due to the change in mean variable levels among urban poor children as percentage share of the total observed HAZ change (0.68 SDs)