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Table 5 Estimated contributions of key stunting predictors to urban poor and non-poor gap in average HAZ (OLS estimates), pooled urban sample (2000-2018)

From: Understanding urban inequalities in children’s linear growth outcomes: a trend and decomposition analysis of 39,049 children in Bangladesh (2000-2018)

Key stunting predictors 1
(N=12198)
2
(N=12198)
3
(N=10252)
4
(N=10233)
5
(N=10231)
6
(N=10217)
7
(N=10201)
8
(N=10194)
9
(N=10099)
10
(N=9426)
11
(N=9426)
12
(N=9426)
Variable’s estimated association with HAZ (95% CI)
Child’s sex
 (Female)
-- 0.01
(-0.04,0.06)
0.06**
(0.01,0.11)
0.06**
(0.02,0.11)
0.06*
(0.01,0.11)
0.06*
(0.01,0.10)
0.06*
(0.01,0.10)
0.06*
(0.01,0.10)
0.06*
(0.01,0.10)
0.05*
(0.00,0.10)
0.05*
(0.00,0.10)
0.05*
(0.00,0.10)
Child’s age
 (12-23 months)
 (24-59 months)
-- -0.71***
(-0.79,-0.63)
-0.78***
(-0.85,-0.71)
-0.72***
(-0.80,-0.64)
-0.79***
(-0.86,-0.71)
-0.71***
(-0.79,-0.63)
-0.79***
(-0.86,-0.72)
-0.71***
(-0.79,-0.63)
-0.78***
(-0.85,-0.71)
-0.70***
(-0.78,-0.62)
-0.80***
(-0.88,-0.73)
-0.71***
(-0.79,-0.63)
-0.82***
(-0.89,-0.75)
-0.71***
(-0.78,-0.63)
-0.81***
(-0.88,-0.74)
-0.71***
(-0.79,-0.63)
-0.82***
(-0.89,-0.75)
-0.71***
(-0.79,-0.63)
-0.81***
(-0.88,-0.74)
-0.71***
(-0.79,-0.63)
-0.81***
(-0.88,-0.74)
-0.71***
(-0.79,-0.63)
-0.81***
(-0.88,-0.74)
Health service use
 Child’s place of delivery (at home)
-- -- -0.50***
(-0.56,-0.44)
-0.48***
(-0.54,-0.42)
-0.36***
(-0.42,-0.30)
-0.29***
(-0.35,-0.23)
-0.28***
(-0.33,-0.22)
-0.26***
(-0.31,-0.20)
-0.26***
(-0.31,-0.20)
-0.24***
(-0.30,-0.18)
-0.23***
(-0.30,-0.17)
-0.21***
(-0.27,-0.15)
 Child’s vaccination
 (not vaccinated)
-- -- -- -0.33***
(-0.42,-0.25)
-0.27***
(-0.36,-0.19)
-0.25***
(-0.34,-0.17)
-0.23***
(-0.32,-0.15)
-0.23***
(-0.31,-0.14)
-0.23***
(-0.31,-0.14)
-0.25***
(-0.33,-0.17)
-0.25***
(-0.33,-0.16)
-0.24***
(-0.32,-0.15)
Maternal education
 (no/primary)
-- -- -- -- -0.40***
(-0.46,-0.34)
-0.37***
(-0.43,-0.31)
-0.28***
(-0.34,-0.22)
0.24***
(-0.30,-0.18)
0.25***
(-0.31,-0.19)
0.24***
(-0.30,-0.18)
0.24***
(-0.30,-0.18)
0.21***
(-0.28,-0.15)
Maternal nutrition
 BMI:
  (underweight)
  (overweight)
-- -- -- -- -- -0.28***
(-0.34,-0.21)
0.28***
(0.21,0.35)
-0.30***
(-0.36,-0.24)
0.26***
(0.19,0.33)
-0.30***
(-0.36,-0.23)
0.26***
(0.19,0.33)
-0.29***
(-0.35,-0.23)
0.25***
(0.18,0.32)
-0.28***
(-0.34,-0.22)
0.26***
(0.19,0.33)
-0.28***
(-0.35,-0.22)
0.26***
(0.19,0.33)
-0.27***
(-0.34,-0.21)
0.23***
(0.16,0.31)
 Stature:
  (short: 145 to <155cm)
  (very short: <145 cm)
-- -- -- -- -- -- -0.52***
(-0.57,-0.45)
-1.02***
(-1.10,-0.93)
-0.51***
(-0.57,-0.45)
-1.02***
(-1.10,-0.93)
-0.51***
(-0.57,-0.45)
-1.02***
(-1.10,-0.94)
-0.50***
(-0.56,-0.44)
-1.02***
(-1.11,-0.93)
-0.50***
(-0.56,-0.44)
-1.02***
(-1.11,-0.93)
-0.50***
(-0.56,-0.44)
-1.02***
(-1.10,-0.93)
Mat. reproductive background
 Age at first child’s birth (≤17 years)
 No. children living with mother (≥4)
-- -- -- -- -- -- -- -0.09***
(-0.14,-0.03)
-0.08**
(-0.13,-0.03)
-0.08**
(-0.13,-0.02)
-0.08**
(-0.14,-0.03)
-0.07**
(-0.13,-0.02)
-- -- -- -- -- -- -- -0.15***
(-0.23,-0.06)
-0.14**
(-0.23,-0.05)
-0.15**
(-0.24,-0.06)
-0.14**
(-0.23,-0.05)
-0.14**
(-0.23,-0.05)
Mat. autonomy & media exposure
 Media exposure (not at all)
 Autonomy level (average-high)
-- -- -- -- -- -- -- -- 0.01
(-0.07,0.09)
-0.01
(-0.09,0.07)
-0.01
(-0.09,0.07)
0.03
(0.06,0.11)
-- -- -- -- -- -- -- -- 0.07**
(0.02,0.13)
0.07**
(0.02,0.13)
0.07**
(0.02,0.13)
0.07*
(0.01,0.13)
Household WASH
 Toilet type (non-improved)
 Drinking water source (non-improved)
-- -- -- -- -- -- -- -- -- -0.07*
(-0.13,-0.01)
-0.06^
(-0.13,0.01)
-0.03
(-0.09,0.04)
-- -- -- -- -- -- -- -- -- 0.21^
(-0.03,0.44)
0.21^
(-0.03,0.45)
0.22^
(-0.01,0.45)
Household Division
 Chittagong
 Others
-- -- -- -- -- -- -- -- -- -- -0.06
(0.15,0.04)
0.07^
(0.01,0.14)
-0.04
(-0.14,0.06)
0.10*
(0.02,0.17)
Household SES
 Household size (≥7 members)
 Household wealth
  (Poorer)
  (Middle)
  (Richer)
  (Richest)
--
--
--
--
--
--
--
--
--
--
--
--
--
--
--
--
--
--
--
--
--
--
0.00
(-0.07,0.06)
0.16**(0.04,0.28)
0.19**(0.06,0.31)
0.17^(-0.00,0.35)
0.37***(0.19,0.57)
Predicted average HAZ gap (95% CI) -0.63***
(-0.70,-0.56)
-0.64***
(-0.71,-0.58)
-0.47***
(-0.54,-0.41)
-0.46***
(-0.53,-0.39)
-0.35***
(-0.42,-0.28)
-0.28***
(-0.35,-0.22)
-0.26***
(-0.32,-0.19)
-0.25***
(-0.31,-0.18)
-0.25***
(-0.32,-0.18)
-0.23***
(-0.30,-0.15)
-0.24***
(-0.31,-0.17)
-0.10^
(-0.24,0.04)
Variables’ contribution to average HAZ gap 100% +1.6% -27.0% -1.6% -17.5% -11.1% -3.2% -1.6% 0.0% -3.2% +1.6% -22.2%
Total remaining gap   101.6% 74.6% 73.0% 55.5% 44.4% 41.2% 39.6% 39.6% 36.4% 38% 15.8%
  1. Notes: HAZ: height-for-age z-score; OLS: Ordinary Least Squares; N: total number of observations in pooled urban sample after adjusting for covariates in respective columns; model accounts for survey year fixed effects and standard errors clustered at the survey-cluster level; ^p ≤0.1; *p ≤0.05; ** p ≤0.01; *** p ≤0.001
  2. Columns show incremental adjustments for key stunting determinants identified from stepwise selection with 5% significance and resulting changes in predicted average HAZ gap: Column 1 shows unadjusted predicted average HAZ gap by urban poverty status; column 2 additionally adjusts for child’s demographics (sex and age); columns 3-4 additionally adjusts for health service use (child’s place of delivery and vaccination status); column 5 additionally adjusts for maternal education; columns 6-7 additionally adjust for maternal nutrition (BMI and stature); column 8 additionally adjusts for maternal reproductive background (age at first child’s birth and number of children); column 9 additionally adjusts for mother’s level of autonomy and media exposure; column 10 additionally adjusts for household water and sanitation; column 11 additionally adjusts for household divisional location; and column 12 additionally adjusts for household size and wealth