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Table 2 Weighted logistic regression results on the associations of various individual-level and country-level variables with face mask usea

From: Global trends and predictors of face mask usage during the COVID-19 pandemic

  Primary model:
From April 22 until October 31
Secondary model:
From June 27 until October 31
Odds ratio (95% CI) P Odds ratio (95% CI) P
Time (month)
April ref   Not available  
May 1.72 (1.69, 1.75) < 0.001 Not available  
June 1.95 (1.92, 1.99) < 0.001 ref  
July 2.01 (1.97, 2.05) < 0.001 1.14 (1.11, 1.17) < 0.001
August 2.60 (2.55, 2.65) < 0.001 1.45 (1.42, 1.48) < 0.001
September 2.74 (2.69, 2.80) < 0.001 1.51 (1.48, 1.55) < 0.001
October 3.40 (3.32, 3.48) < 0.001 1.90 (1.85, 1.96) < 0.001
COVID-19 test ever taken
No ref   ref  
Yes 1.59 (1.57, 1.61) < 0.001 1.55 (1.53, 1.58) < 0.001
Age
18–24 years ref   ref  
25–34 years 1.22 (1.20, 1.23) < 0.001 1.16 (1.14, 1.18) < 0.001
35–44 years 1.34 (1.32, 1.36) < 0.001 1.23 (1.21, 1.26) < 0.001
45–54 years 1.43 (1.41, 1.45) < 0.001 1.32 (1.29, 1.34) < 0.001
55–64 years 1.42 (1.40, 1.44) < 0.001 1.28 (1.25, 1.30) < 0.001
65+ years 1.47 (1.45, 1.50) < 0.001 1.27 (1.24, 1.29) < 0.001
Gender
Male/other ref   ref  
Female 1.70 (1.69, 1.71) < 0.001 1.75 (1.73, 1.77) < 0.001
Living in an urban area
No ref   ref  
Yes 1.40 (1.39, 1.41) < 0.001 1.43 (1.41, 1.44) < 0.001
Gone out to work outside in the last 24 h
No ref   ref  
Yes 0.98 (0.98, 0.99) < 0.001 0.98 (0.97, 0.99) < 0.001
Gone out to a market, grocery store or pharmacy in the last 24 h
No ref   ref  
Yes 1.07 (1.06, 1.08) < 0.001 1.01 (1.09, 1.11) < 0.001
Gone out to a restaurant, café, or shopping center in the last 24 h
No ref   ref  
Yes 0.77 (0.77, 0.78) < 0.001 0.76 (0.75, 0.77) < 0.001
Spent time with someone outside their household in the last 24 h
No ref   ref  
Yes 0.72 (0.72, 0.73) < 0.001 0.70 (0.69, 0.71) < 0.001
Attended a public event with more than 10 people in the last 24 h
No ref   ref  
Yes 0.45 (0.44, 0.45) < 0.001 0.46 (0.46, 0.47) < 0.001
Mask policy stringency score
Per 1 standard deviation 1.58 (1.58, 1.59) < 0.001 1.50 (1.48, 1.51) < 0.001
Seven day lagged COVID-19 cases
Per 1 standard deviation 0.93 (0.93, 0.94) < 0.001 0.98 (0.98, 0.99) < 0.001
Worked in the last 7 days
No Not available   ref  
Yes Not available   0.98 (0.97, 0.99) < 0.001
Worried about household finances
No Not available   ref  
Yes Not available   0.88 (0.87, 0.89) < 0.001
Years of education
Per 1 year Not available   1.07 (1.07, 1.08) < 0.001
  1. aDependent variable: mask usage (binary), type: Analysis of complex survey design; link function: logit. Model includes fixed effects by country (not shown in Table). Pseudo R2 = 0.27 for the primary model; Pseudo R2 = 0.26 for secondary model.