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Table 2 Prevalence of depression symptoms, generalized anxiety symptoms, and distress before and after the initial COVID-19 outbreak in patients with diabetes

From: Mental health burden of patients with diabetes before and after the initial outbreak of COVID-19: predictors of mental health impairment

  Before COVID-19 outbreak
N (%)
After COVID-19 outbreak
N (%)
χ2 p
PHQ-2    7.55 .006
 <3 223 (88.1%) 199 (78.7%)   
 ≥3 30 (11.9%) 54 (21.3%)   
GAD-2    6.38 .012
 <3 218 (86.2%) 195 (77.1%)   
 ≥3 35 (13.8%) 58 (22.9%)   
DT    6.91 .009
 <4 117 (46.2%) 87 (34.4%)   
 ≥4 136 (53.8%) 166 (65.6%)   
Total 253 (100%) 253 (100%)   
  1. Note: PHQ-2 = Patient Health Questionnaire-2, sum scores of ≥3 indicate major depression symptoms; GAD-2 = Generalized Anxiety Disorder Scale-2, sum scores of ≥3 indicate severe generalized anxiety symptoms; DT = Distress Thermometer, scores of ≥4 indicate elevated distress