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Table 4 Factors related to the decline in HRQOL-mental by gender

From: Declines in health literacy and health-related quality of life during the COVID-19 pandemic: a longitudinal study of the Japanese general population

  Total (N = 749) Male (N = 363) Female (N = 386)
B 95% CI B 95% CI B 95% CI
Age 0.019 (− 0.018 to 0.056) 0.017 (− 0.033 to 0.067) 0.027 (−0.028 to 0.081)
Gender −2.046 (−3.145 to − 0.947)     
Education −0.246 (−0.756 to 0.263) − 0.535 (−1.179 to 0.108) 0.136 (− 0.692 to 0.965)
Economic status 0.416 (0.093 to 0.738) 0.409 (−0.019 to 0.837) 0.377 (− 0.111 to 0.865)
Having a disease −1.123 (−2.204 to − 0.042) − 0.786 (− 2.258 to 0.686) −1.375 (− 2.965 to 0.215)
Full-time worker − 0.916 (− 2.099 to 0.267) 0.310 (− 1.294 to 1.914) −2.014 (− 3.783 to − 0.246)
HRQOL-mental at 2020 − 0.502 (− 0.573 to − 0.431) −0.486 (− 0.583 to − 0.388) −0.520 (− 0.624 to − 0.417)
HL at 2020 0.104 (0.048 to 0.161) 0.136 (0.063 to 0.210) 0.076 (−0.011 to 0.162)
 (constant) 22.389 (17.543 to 27.234) 18.601 (12.791 to 24.412) 19.260 (12.885 to 25.634)
Adjusted R-squared 0.208   0.210   0.194  
  1. Multiple linear regression analysis was used. Significant differences are printed in bold (p < 0.05)