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Table 3 Factors related to the decline in HRQOL-physical by gender

From: Declines in health literacy and health-related quality of life during the COVID-19 pandemic: a longitudinal study of the Japanese general population

  Total (N = 749) Male (N = 363) Female (N = 386)
B 95% CI B 95% CI B 95% CI
Age 0.006 (−0.029 to 0.042) 0.032 (−0.016 to 0.079) −0.024 (− 0.078 to 0.030)
Gender −0.392 (− 1.466 to 0.683)     
Education −0.109 (−0.607 to 0.389) 0.084 (−0.533 to 0.700) − 0.457 (−1.282 to 0.368)
Economic status 0.358 (0.043 to 0.672) 0.164 (−0.245 to 0.573) 0.527 (0.045 to 1.010)
Having a disease −1.602 (−2.685 to − 0.520) 0.183 (−3.234 to − 0.372) −1.297 (−2.932 to 0.338)
Full-time worker 1.053 (− 0.102 to 2.209) 1.665 (0.124 to 3.206) 0.319 (−1.436 to 2.075)
HRQOL-physical at 2020 −0.594 (− 0.663 to − 0.524) 0.564 (− 0.661 to − 0.466) −0.616 (− 0.716 to − 0.515)
HL at 2020 0.057 (0.003 to 0.112) 0.028 (−0.042 to 0.098) 0.092 (0.007 to 0.177)
 (constant) 23.327 (18.448 to 28.205) 21.102 (15.231 to 26.972) 24.155 (17.707 to 30.603)
Adjusted R-squared 0.270   0.259   0.278  
  1. Multiple linear regression analysis was used. Significant differences are printed in bold (p < 0.05)