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Table 2 Changes in HRQOL and HL between 2020 and 2021

From: Declines in health literacy and health-related quality of life during the COVID-19 pandemic: a longitudinal study of the Japanese general population

   2020 2021 Change 2021–2020
N Mean SD Mean SD Mean SD p-value1)
HRQOL-physical 817 44.83 7.13 44.15 7.38 −0.68 7.58 0.010
 male 399 45.18 6.75 44.62 6.89 −0.56 6.94 0.107
 female 418 44.50 7.48 43.70 7.80 − 0.80 8.15 0.045
HRQOL-mental 817 49.72 7.14 48.63 7.84 −1.09 7.49 <.001
 male 399 49.82 7.08 49.33 7.53 −0.48 7.06 0.172
 female 418 49.62 7.21 47.96 8.08 −1.66 7.84 <.001
Health literacy 730 30.53 8.80 28.75 8.82 −1.78 6.62 <.001
 male 351 29.85 9.08 28.03 9.09 −1.83 6.71 <.001
 female 379 31.16 8.49 29.41 8.52 −1.74 6.55 <.001
  1. 1) Paired t-test for changes between 2020 and 2021