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Table 4 Association between socioeconomic characteristics and under-5 severe child undernutrition in rural-urban context

From: Urban-rural differences in the associated factors of severe under-5 child undernutrition based on the composite index of severe anthropometric failure (CISAF) in Bangladesh

Socioeconomic characteristics Rural Urban
Adjusted Odds Ratio (95% CI) P values Adjusted Odds Ratio (95% CI) P values
Parents’ education a
 Both parents uneducated 1.92 (1.35–2.73) < 0.001 2.34 (1.27–4.32) 0.006
 Only father uneducated 1.54 (1.23–1.94) < 0.001 1.42 (0.86–2.36) 0.170
 Only mother uneducated 2.15 (1.46–3.18) < 0.001 1.08 (0.51–2.29) 0.843
 Both parents educated (RC) 1.00   1.00  
Underweight mother (< 18.5 kg/m2) a
 No (RC) 1.00   1.00  
 Yes 1.50 (1.21–1.84) < 0.001 1.58 (1.04–2.40) 0.033
Mothers received antenatal care b
 No 1.28 (1.00–1.64) 0.050   
 Yes (RC) 1.00    
Mothers received postnatal care b
 No    2.13 (1.32–3.44) 0.002
 Yes (RC)    1.00  
Mother’s attitudes toward wife-beating a
 Not justified 1.00    
 Justified 1.25 (1.02–1.52) 0.028   
Mass media exposure a,c
 No 1.25 (1.04–1.51) 0.018   
 Yes (RC) 1.00    
Wealth index a,d
 Poorest 2.44 (1.57–3.78) < 0.001 2.40 (1.47–3.93) < 0.001
 Poorer 2.20 (1.43–3.38) < 0.001 2.35 (1.34–4.11) 0.003
 Middle 1.68 (1.09–2.61) 0.020 1.49 (0.90–2.46) 0.122
 Richer 1.80 (1.15–2.82) 0.011 1.36 (0.91–2.02) 0.132
 Richest (RC) 1.00   1.00  
Children age a
 0–11 months (RC) 1.00   1.00  
 12–23 months 1.78 (1.36–2.33) < 0.001 1.46 (0.89–2.39) 0.131
 24–35 months 2.10 (1.61–2.74) < 0.001 2.19 (1.37–3.51) 0.001
 36–47 months 1.37 (1.03–1.83) 0.030 1.16 (0.69–1.96) 0.577
 48–59 months 1.21 (0.90–1.61) 0.202 1.08 (0.64–1.83) 0.765
Birth order a
 First (RC)    1.00  
 Second    1.07 (0.74–1.54) 0.728
 Third    1.05 (0.65–1.69) 0.833
 Fourth and above    1.75 (1.07–2.86) 0.027
Small birth weight b,e
 No (RC) 1.00   1.00  
 Yes 2.84 (1.88–4.30) < 0.001 3.99 (2.12–7.52) < 0.001
  1. RC, reference category
  2. a model adjusted with all variables found significant in the bivariate analysis except mothers received antenatal care, mothers received postnatal care, and small birth weight
  3. b model adjusted with all variables found significant in the bivariate analysis including mothers received antenatal care, mothers received postnatal care and small birth weight
  4. c exposure to either radio, television, newspapers, or magazines at least once a week
  5. d integrating household asset ownership and access to drinking water and sanitation
  6. e child’s weight at birth based on measuring and mother’s perception
  7. Results are derived using stepwise backward selection of regression