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Table 2 Background characteristics of the children

From: Urban-rural differences in the associated factors of severe under-5 child undernutrition based on the composite index of severe anthropometric failure (CISAF) in Bangladesh

Characteristics Total (%)e Rural (%)e Urban (%)e
Maternal age (years)
 15–19 938 (12.2) 657 (13.0) 281 (10.8)
 20–24 2679 (35.0) 1818 (36.0) 861 (33.0)
 25–29 2146 (28.0) 1395 (27.6) 751 (28.8)
 30–34 1293 (16.9) 825 (16.3) 468 (18.0)
 34–39 481 (6.3) 291 (5.8) 190 (7.3)
 ≥ 40 124 (1.6) 70 (1.4) 54 (2.1)
Parents’ education
 Both parents were uneducated 294 (3.8) 208 (4.1) 86 (3.3)
 Only father was uneducated 865 (11.3) 654 (12.9) 211 (8.1)
 Only mother was uneducated 243 (3.2) 154 (3.1) 89 (3.4)
 Both parents were educated 6259 (81.7) 4040 (79.9) 2219 (85.2)
Mother’s income-earning status
 Not working 4560 (59.5) 2788 (55.1) 1772 (68.0)
 Currently working 3101 (40.5) 2268 (44.9) 833 (32.0)
Underweight mother (< 18.5 kg/m2)
 No 6535 (85.3) 4246 (84.0) 2289 (87.9)
 Yes 1126 (14.7) 810 (16.0) 316 (12.1)
Mothers received antenatal care (n = 4540)
 No 363 (8.0) 285 (9.5) 78 (5.1)
 Yes 4177 (92.0) 2727 (90.5) 1450 (94.9)
Mothers received postnatal care (n = 4535)
 No 1509 (33.3) 970 (32.2) 539 (35.4)
 Yes 3026 (66.7) 2041 (67.8) 985 (64.6)
Mother’s attitudes toward wife-beating
 Not justified 6274 (81.9) 4042 (79.9) 2232 (85.7)
 Justified 1387 (18.1) 1014 (20.1) 373 (14.3)
Mothers’ decision-making autonomya
 Not participated 1083 (14.1) 786 (15.5) 297 (11.4)
 Participated 6578 (85.9) 4270 (84.5) 2308 (71.9)
Religion
 Islam 6997 (91.3) 4608 (91.1) 2389 (91.7)
 Others 664 (8.7) 448 (8.9) 216 (8.3)
Source of water
 Improved 6658 (86.9) 4332 (85.7) 2326 (89.3)
 Unimproved 1003 (13.1) 724 (14.3) 279 (10.7)
Cooking fuel
 Clean fuel 2218 (29.0) 899 (17.8) 1319 (50.6)
 Solid fuel 5443 (71.0) 4157 (82.2) 1286 (49.4)
Type of toilet facility
 Improved 4359 (56.9) 2638 (52.2) 1721 (66.1)
 Unimproved 3302 (43.1) 2418 (47.8) 884 (33.9)
Mass media exposure
 No 2771 (36.1) 2232 (44.2) 539 (20.7)
 Yes 4890 (63.8) 2824 (55.8) 2066 (79.3)
Wealth indexb
 Poorest 1708 (22.3) 1422 (28.1) 286 (11.0)
 Poorer 1545 (20.2) 1325 (26.2) 220 (8.4)
 Middle 1381 (18.0) 1024 (20.2) 357 (13.7)
 Richer 1533 (20.0) 827 (16.4) 706 (27.1)
 Richest 1494 (19.5) 458 (9.1) 1036 (39.8)
Children age
 0–11 months 1673 (21.8) 1120 (22.2) 553 (21.2)
 12–23 months 1583 (20.7) 1058 (20.9) 525 (20.1)
 24–35 months 1475 (19.3) 973 (19.2) 502 (19.3)
 36–47 months 1417 (18.5) 939 (18.6) 478 (18.4)
 48–59 months 1513 (19.7) 966 (19.1) 547 (21.0)
Sex of child
 Male 3995 (51.2) 2673 (52.9) 1322 (50.7)
 Female 3666 (48.8) 2383 (47.1) 1283 (49.3)
Birth order
 First 2902 (37.9) 1848 (36.6) 1054 (40.4)
 Second 2507 (32.7) 1617 (32.0) 890 (34.2)
 Third 1297 (16.9) 893 (17.7) 404 (15.5)
 Fourth and above 955 (12.5) 698 (13.8) 257 (9.9)
Small birth weightc (n = 4735)
 No 1815 (38.3) 1036 (32.9) 779 (49.2)
 Yes 326 (6.9) 190 (6.0) 136 (8.6)
 Not weighted 2594 (54.8) 1927 (61.1) 667 (42.2)
Recent morbidity statusd
 No 4043 (52.8) 2636 (52.1) 1407 (54.0)
 Yes 3618 (47.2) 2420 (47.9) 1198 (46.0)
Total 7661 (100.0) 5056 (66.0) 2605 (34.0)
  1. adefined as women’s decision making power relative to their male partners
  2. bintegrating household asset ownership and access to drinking water and sanitation
  3. cchild’s size and weight at birth based on a mother’s perception
  4. dchild had at least one morbid condition out of diarrhea, fever and cough in the 2 weeks preceding the survey
  5. epercentages were weighted