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Table 4 Percentage changes and correlates of emotional IPV from 2005-06 to 2015-16 as per the. National Family Health Survey (Rounds 3 and 4), India

From: Trends and correlates of intimate partner violence experienced by ever-married women of India: results from National Family Health Survey round III and IV

  NFHS 3 NFHS 4 % Relative change Unadjusted OR (95% CI) Adjusted OR
(95% CI) and p-Value
Total 14.8 (14.5–15.1) 13.2 (12.4–13.8) −11.0    
Age
 15–19 (Ref) 12.0 (11.0–12.9) 12.7 (10.7–13.4) 0.7 1 1  
 20–24 13.4 (12.8–14.2) 11.2 (10.5–11.8) −16.8 1.0 (0.8–1.1) 0.8 (0.7–0.9) 0.03
 25–34 15.0 (14.4–15.6) 12.6 (12.0–13.2) −16 1.1 (0.9–1.2) 0.8 (0.6–0.9) 0.01
 35+ 15.6 (15.2–15.9) 13.9 (13.6–14.3) −10.5 1.1 (1.0–1.3) 0.7 (0.6–0.9) 0.00
Respondents education
 No education (Ref) 18.4 (18.0–18.9) 17.8 (17.3–18.4) −3.2 1 1  
 Primary 16.1 (15.4–16.9) 15.0 (14.2–15.7) −7.3 0.8 (0.8–0.9) 1.0 (0.9–1.0) 0.36
 Secondary+ 9.7 (9.3–10.1) 10.0 (9.6–10.3) 2.6 0.5 (0.5–0.6) 0.9 (0.8–0.9) 0.00
Partner Education
 No education (Ref) 19.5 (18.9–20.1) 19.1 (18.4–19.9) −1.9 1 1  
 Primary 18.2 (17.4–18.9) 15.6 (14.8–16.3) −14.4 0.8 (0.8–0.9) 0.9 (0.9–1.0) 0.17
 Secondary+ 11.6 (11.3–12.0) 11 (10.7–11.3) −5.6 0.6 (0.5–0.6) 0.9 (0.8–0.9) 0.00
Wealth Status
 Poorest (Ref) 19.6 (18.9–20.3) 18.5 (17.7–19.2) −5.8 1 1  
 Poorer 18.9 (18.2–19.6) 16.0 (15.3–16.6) −15.5 0.8 (0.8–0.9) 0.9 (0.9–1.0) 0.09
 Middle 16.2 (15.6–16.9) 14.1 (13.5–14.7) −13 0.7 (0.6–0.7) 0.8 (0.8–0.9) 0.00
 Richer 12.0 (11.5–12.6) 11.2 (10.7–11.8) −6.6 0.5 (0.5–0.6) 0.7 (0.6–0.7) 0.00
 Richest 7.9 (7.4–8.3) 7.6 (7.2–8.1) −3.4 0.4 (0.3–0.4) 0.6 (0.5–0.6) 0.00
Religion
 Hindu 14.8 (14.5–15.2) 13.4 (13.1–13.7) −9.6 1 1  
 Non-Hindu 14.6 (14.0–15.3) 12.8 (12.2–13.4) −12.8 0.9 (0.8–0.9) 1.2 (1.1–1.2) 0.00
Place of residence
 Urban 12.0 (11.5–12.4) 11.2 (10.8–11.6) −6.8 1 1  
 Rural 16.0 (15.7–16.4) 14.2 (13.9–14.5) −11.4 1.2 (1.1–1.3) 0.8 (0.8–0.9) 0.00
Region
 North(Ref) 14.4 (13.7–15.2) 8.9 (8.3–9.5) −38.5 1 1  
 Central 16.6 (16.0–17.2) 12.9 (12.3–13.4) −22.4 1.5 (1.4–1.6) 0.9 (0.8–1.3) 0.05
 East 16.0 (15.4–16.6) 14.8 (14.2–15.4) −7.2 1.8 (1.7–1.9) 1 (0.9–1.0) 0.29
 North-east 14.0 (12.6–15.5) 10.7 (9.4–12.0) −23.5 1.3 (1.2–1.4) 1.1 (1.0–1.2) 0.17
 West 16.4 (15.7–17.2) 9.6 (95.2–96.0) −41.7 1.2 (1.0–1.3) 1.2 (1.1–1.4) 0.00
 South 10.7 (10.2–11.2) 16.9 (16.3–17.5) 57.6 2.0 (1.9–2.2) 1.6 (1.4–1.7) 0.00
Parity
 0(Ref) 10.5 (9.8–11.3) 9.3 (92.5–93.7) −11.5 1 1  
 1–2 12.5 (12.1–12.9) 11.8 (11.4–12.1) −5.8 1.3 (1.2–1.4) 1.3 (1.1–1.4) 0.00
 3+ 17.5 (17.1–17.9) 15.9 (15.4–16.4) −9 1.8 (1.7–2.0) 1.4 (1.3–1.6) 0.00
Economic empowerment status
 Not empower 11.5 (11.1–11.9) 11.5 1 1  
 Empower 14.5 (14.1–14.9) 14.5 1.0 (0.9–1.1) 1.0 (0.9–1.1) 0.68
Witnessing parental Violence
 No(Ref) 12 (11.7–12.3) 10.1 (9.8–10.4) −15.9 1 1  
 Yes 27.2 (26.4–27.9) 24.8 (24.1–25.5) −8.7 3.1 (2.9–3.3) 2.2 (2.1–2.3) 0.00
Duration of cohabitation in years
 0–4(Ref) 10.1 (9.6–10.6) 9 (8.5–9.5) −10.6 1 1  
 5–9 14.5 (13.9–15.1) 12.8 (12.2–13.4) −11.8 1.4 (1.3–1.5) 1.3 (1.1–1.4) 0.00
 10–14 15.9 (15.2–16.5) 14 (13.4–14.7) −11.5 1.6 (1.4–1.7) 1.4 (1.2–1.6) 0.00
 15–19 16.5 (15.8–17.2) 14.4 (13.7–15.1) −12.8 1.6 (1.5–1.8) 1.4 (1.2–1.6) 0.00
 20+ 16.4 (15.9–17.0) 14.9 (14.3–15.4) −9.6 1.7 (1.6–1.8) 1.5 (1.3–1.7) 0.00
Number of co wives
 None(Ref) 14.6 (14.3–14.9) 12.9 (12.6–13.2) −11.6 1 1  
 One and more 26.4 (23.7–29.0) 29.3 (26.5–32.2) 11.3 2.3 (2.0–2.7) 1.9 (1.6–2.2) 0.00
Age at first marriage
 Below 18(Ref) 17.2 (16.8–17.6) 15.3 (14.9–15.7) −10.9 1 1  
 More than 18 years 11.3 (10.9–11.7) 11.5 (11.2–11.9) 2 0.7 (0.7–0.8) 1.0 (0.9–1.1) 0.72
Partners controlling behaviours
 No(Ref) 7.5 (7.3–7.8) 5.3 (5.1–5.5) −29.5 1 1  
 Yes 25.7 (25.2–26.3) 22.3 (21.8–22.8) −13.3 5.1 (4.8–5.4) 4.5 (4.2–4.7) 0.00
Partner drink alcohol
 No(Ref) 11.3 (11.0–11.6) 9.0 (8.7–9.3) −20.2 1 1  
 Yes 22.3 (21.7–22.9) 23.9 (23.2–24.5) 7 3.0 (2.8–3.1) 2.2 (2.1–2.3) 0.00