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Table 5 Multivariable-adjusted log-binomial regression of associations between ln-transformed urinary pesticide metabolites and self-reported household pesticide use with sleep outcomes

From: Association between pesticide exposure and sleep health among a representative sample of US adults: evidence from NHANES 2009–2014

  Insufficient Sleepa
PR [95% CI]
Trouble Sleeping
PR [95% CI]
  Overall Males Females Overall Males Females
2,4-D1 0.97 (0.87, 1.07) 0.91 (0.78, 1.06) 1.04 (0.88, 1.22) 1.07 (0.91, 1.14) 0.97 (0.83, 1.14) 1.06 (0.92, 1.23)
p 0.52 0.21 0.64 0.77 0.69 0.41
3-PBA1 1.04 (0.96, 1.12) 1.09 (1.00, 1.20) 0.98 (0.89, 1.08) 1.09 (1.02, 1.17) 1.14 (1.02, 1.27) 1.06 (0.95, 1.81)
p 0.36 0.04 0.67 0.01 0.02 0.26
pNP1 0.98 (0.90, 1.07) 1.01 (0.90, 1.12) 0.96 (0.85, 1.09) 1.06 (0.97, 1.17) 1.06 (0.89, 1.25) 1.08 (0.97, 1.21)
p 0.70 0.91 0.51 0.16 0.52 0.51
Model 1
No exposure Reference Reference Reference Reference Reference Reference
Acute exposure 1.24 (1.09, 1.40) 1.27 (1.02, 1.58) 1.21 (1.03, 1.46) 1.26 (1.07, 1.49) 1.66 (1.28, 2.16) 0.99 (0.79, 1.26)
p 0.002 0.03 0.04 0.007 <.001 0.96
Model 2
No exposure Reference Reference Reference Reference Reference Reference
Acute exposure 1.20 (1.06, 1.36) 1.24 (0.99, 1.56) 1.16 (0.97, 1.40) 1.25 (1.05, 1.50) 1.68 (1.28, 2.21) 0.99 (0.77, 1.27)
p <.001 0.05 0.09 0.01 <.001 0.91
Model 3
No exposure Reference Reference Reference Reference Reference Reference
Acute exposure 1.16 (1.02, 1.32) 1.23 (0.97, 1.56) 1.09 (0.90, 1.32) 1.20 (1.01, 1.44) 1.69 (1.27, 2.24) 0.91 (0.70, 1.17)
p 0.03 0.08 0.36 0.04 <.001 0.44
  1. ABR: N sample size; PR prevalence ratio; CI confidence interval; 4-D 2,4-dichlorophenoxyacetic acid; 3-PBA 3-phenoxybenzoic acid; pNP para-Nitrophenol; BMI body mass index; household food insecurity; PIR poverty income ratio; P values obtained from unadjusted (Model 1 only) and multivariable-adjusted log-binomial regression model; Model 1 unadjusted; Model 2 adjusted for sex, age, and race/ethnicity; Model 3 adjusted for sex, age, race/ethnicity, BMI, marital status, PIR, and smoking behavior; a Indicates insufficient sleep duration based on AASM recommendations for adults ≥20 years;b1Urinary concentration adjusted for urinary creatinine, sex, age, race/ethnicity, BMI, marital status, PIR and smoking behavior, except for when sex-stratified by sex