Skip to main content

Table 6 Multinomial logistic regression of class memberships on covariates of health risk exposures of mothers during pregnancy or in the year of childbirtha

From: Clustering of asthma and related comorbidities and their association with maternal health during pregnancy: evidence from an Australian birth cohort

health risk exposures of mothers Had asthma – currently healthy Early-onset-asthmatic/allergic Asthmatic unhealthy
OR (95% CI) p-value OR (95% CI) p-value OR (95% CI) p-value
Mother had asthma during pregnancy
No (ref.)
Yes 2.50 (1.42–4.39) 0.002 1.7 (0.91–3.18) 0.093 3.31 (2.07–5.30) < 0.001
  Had any medical condition in the year of childbirth
No (ref.)
  Yes 1.03 (0.69–1.54) 0.872 1.23 (0.84–1.8) 0.297 1.72 (1.23–2.42) 0.002
General health status of mother
Excellent/Very good health (ref.)
  Good health 0.93 (0.63–1.38) 0.73 1.45 (1–2.09) 0.051 1.26 (0.88–1.8) 0.208
  Fair/Poor health 1.53 (0.81–2.89) 0.190 1.22 (0.63–2.36) 0.561 1.7 (0.96–3.01) 0.069
Obesity status of mothers before pregnancy
Healthy weight (ref.)
  Underweight 0.91 (0.5–1.65) 0.750 1.21 (0.69–2.12) 0.495 0.96 (0.55–1.69) 0.885
  Overweight 1.41 (0.94–2.1) 0.094 1.09 (0.72–1.66) 0.688 1.23 (0.83–1.81) 0.301
  Obese 1.1 (0.66–1.82) 0.724 1.07 (0.65–1.75) 0.803 1.19 (0.75–1.89) 0.462
Birth Weight of children
Healthy weight (ref.)
  Low birth weight (< 2500 g) 1.42 (0.61–3.3) 0.410 0.86 (0.34–2.19) 0.754 1.91 (0.87–4.18) 0.106
  High birth weight (> = 4000 g) 1.41 (0.92–2.16) 0.110 1.23 (0.79–1.94) 0.361 0.87 (0.55–1.38) 0.553
Gestational Age of birth
On time birth (ref.)
  Pre-term birth (< 37 weeks) 1.22 (0.56–2.65) 0.613 1.29 (0.58–2.87) 0.534 0.87 (0.4–1.88) 0.715
  Late birth (> = 42 weeks) 0.73 (0.3–1.77) 0.493 1.07 (0.5–2.27) 0.859 1.34 (0.69–2.59) 0.385
Frequency of smoking in 1st Trimester
No smoking (ref.)
  Occasional / <  10 cigarettes per day 0.35 (0.14–0.93) 0.035 0.87 (0.44–1.72) 0.699 1.28 (0.72–2.27) 0.403
  10+ cigarettes per day 1.04 (0.43–2.57) 0.924 1.33 (0.58–3.04) 0.496 1.34 (0.63–2.86) 0.449
  1. aNote: The Multinomial logistic regression model has been constructed using never asthmatic & healthy cluster as reference category. Further, for each of the independent variables, the reference category (ref.) has been mentioned at the beginning of the categorical values. The regression model has been controlled with mothers’ other health related and socio-economic variables listed as follows: breastfeeding, type of birth delivery, immunisation status of children, gender of the child, education and marital status of mother, family income, language spoken at home and remoteness of the residence