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Table 4 Average scores of PedsQL, well-being and lung function measures by the cluster group of the children

From: Clustering of asthma and related comorbidities and their association with maternal health during pregnancy: evidence from an Australian birth cohort

PedsQL, Well-being and Lung Function Measures Total Sample Cluster 1 Cluster 2 Cluster 3 Cluster 4 p-value
n Mean (SD) n Mean (SD) n Mean (SD) n Mean (SD) n Mean (SD)
A. Paediatric Quality of Life Inventory
 Inventory physical health summary 1750 83.1 (13.6) 192 84.5 (12.3) 1141 84.0 (13.0) 181 81.5 (13.6) 236 79.4 (16.4) < 0.001
 Inventory psychosocial health summary 1750 75.8 (14.6) 191 77.4 (14.7) 1141 76.7 (14.0) 182 72.1 (15.2) 236 73.1 (15.9) < 0.001
 Inventory total score 1751 78.4 (13.0) 192 79.9 (13.1) 1141 79.3 (12.6) 182 75.4 (13.3) 236 75.3 (14.2) < 0.001
B. International Survey of Children’s Well-being
 Brief Multi-dimensional Students’ Life Satisfaction Scale 1750 82.8 (13.8) 190 85.0 (13.4) 1143 83.0 (13.7) 182 81.0 (14.2) 235 81.5 (14.5) 0.014
 Overall Life Satisfaction 1745 80.6 (18.5) 190 84.3 (17.7) 1137 81.0 (18.1) 183 78.7 (17.7) 235 77.5 (21.2) < 0.001
C. Lung Function Measures
Raw
  FEV1 (L) 1321 2.54 (0.42) 147 2.54 (0.40) 858 2.57 (0.41) 134 2.51 (0.42) 182 2.46 (0.42) 0.016
  FVC (L) 1321 2.99 (0.51) 147 3.03 (0.51) 858 2.99 (0.51) 134 2.95 (0.51) 182 2.96 (0.50) 0.493
  FEV1/FVC ratio 1319 0.88 (0.02) 147 0.87 (0.01) 857 0.88 (0.02) 133 0.88 (0.02) 182 0.88 (0.02) 0.032
  MEF (FEF 25–75%) 1319 2.90 (0.29) 147 2.90 (0.30) 857 2.92 (0.29) 133 2.88 (0.29) 182 2.86 (0.30) 0.132
Z-Scores
  FEV1 (L) 1319 0.53 (0.99) 147 0.45 (0.97) 857 0.60 (0.97) 133 0.52 (1.00) 182 0.31 (1.08) 0.002
  FVC (L) 1319 0.83 (1.10) 147 0.84 (1.13) 857 0.83 (1.10) 133 0.82 (1.05) 182 0.81 (1.17) 0.991
  FEV1/FVC ratio 1319 −0.39 (1.10) 147 −0.57 (1.00) 857 −0.29 (1.10) 133 −0.41 (1.08) 182 −0.71 (1.15) < 0.001
  MEF (FEF 25–75%) 1319 −0.06 (1.06) 147 −0.28 (0.94) 857 0.05 (1.03) 133 −0.13 (1.13) 182 −0.37 (1.15) < 0.001
  1. Note: One way ANOVA mean comparison tests were performed to define the significance of the mean differences across the clusters; Abbreviations: FEF forced expiratory flow, FEV1 forced expiratory volume in 1 s, FVC forced vital capacity, MEF mid expiratory flow (FEF25–75%)