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Table 4 Gender differences in depressive symptoms of grandparents caring for grandchildren in matched cohorts

From: Gender differences in depressive symptoms of rural Chinese grandparents caring for grandchildren

Variables Grandfathers Grandmothers
Model 1 Model 2 Model 3 Model 4 Model 1 Model 2 Model 3 Model 4
Coef. Coef. Coef. Coef. Coef. Coef. Coef. Coef.
(95%CI) (95%CI) (95%CI) (95%CI) (95%CI) (95%CI) (95%CI) (95%CI)
Fixed effects
 Grandchild-care duration, hours − 0.0006     0.0004    
(− 0.002–0.001)     (− 0.001–0.001)    
Grandchild-care provision (Ref: No)
 Yes   −0.034     −0.087*   
  (− 0.150–0.083)     (− 0.163 - -0.010)   
Grandchild-care intensity (Ref: No care)
 Low    − 0.047     − 0.112  
   (− 0.196–0.102)     (− 0.257–0.032)  
 Moderate    − 0.031     −0.291***  
   (− 0.173–0.111)     (− 0.435 - -0.147)  
 High    −0.031     − 0.017  
   (− 0.174–0.113)     (−0.120–0.085)  
Grandchild-care intensity (Ref: Low)
 Moderate     −0.004     −0.171*
    (−0.190–0.182)     (−0.313 - -0.029)
 High     −0.001     0.110
    (−0.184–0.182)     (−0.064–0.284)
Age, years (Ref: 45-49)
  ≥ 60 0.088 0.087 0.087 0.201* −0.139* − 0.142* −0.133* − 0.176*
(−0.054–0.229) (−0.055–0.229) (−0.055–0.229) (0.021–0.381) (−0.253 - -0.026) (− 0.252 - -0.032) (− 0.244 - -0.023) (−0.312 - -0.040)
Education level (Ref: Illiterate)
 Primary school or below 0.176 0.176 0.176 0.115 −0.031 − 0.029 −0.030 − 0.032
(−0.024–0.376) (−0.023–0.375) (−0.023–0.374) (−0.063–0.292) (−0.173–0.111) (−0.170–0.112) (−0.171–0.111) (−0.154–0.091)
 Middle school 0.001 0.001 3.20e-05 0.006 −0.228* −0.222* − 0.230* −0.255**
(−0.229–0.230) (−0.228–0.229) (−0.228–0.228) (−0.221–0.233) (−0.419 - -0.037) (− 0.412 - -0.032) (− 0.419 - -0.042) (−0.441 - -0.070)
 High school or above −0.261 −0.265 − 0.266 −0.049 − 0.314 −0.321 − 0.331 −0.590*
(−0.645–0.122) (−0.647–0.117) (−0.647–0.115) (−0.310–0.212) (−1.077–0.448) (−1.063–0.422) (−1.074–0.412) (−1.110 - -0.069)
Marital status (Ref: Separated/Divorced/Widowed/Never married)
 Married −0.068 − 0.071 −0.071 − 0.128 −0.131 − 0.130 −0.133 − 0.178
(−0.233–0.098) (−0.232–0.090) (−0.232–0.090) (−0.396–0.140) (−0.299–0.038) (−0.298–0.039) (−0.304–0.039) (−0.402–0.045)
Work status (Ref: Unemployed)
 Working −0.034 − 0.033 −0.032 0.010 0.059 0.052 0.057 0.075
(−0.184–0.117) (−0.182–0.116) (−0.183–0.118) (−0.176–0.196) (−0.106–0.224) (−0.116–0.220) (−0.107–0.222) (−0.120–0.271)
Annual household income (Ref: Poorest)
 2nd quintile 0.009 0.007 0.006 0.006 0.078 0.076 0.076 0.101
(−0.197–0.216) (−0.197–0.210) (−0.199–0.211) (−0.226–0.238) (−0.045–0.201) (−0.048–0.200) (−0.049–0.201) (−0.078–0.280)
 Middle −0.034 − 0.035 −0.036 − 0.061 −0.036 − 0.036 −0.030 0.034
(−0.186–0.118) (−0.187–0.117) (−0.188–0.117) (−0.293–0.171) (−0.229–0.157) (−0.231–0.159) (−0.224–0.164) (−0.207–0.274)
 4th quintile −0.016 − 0.018 −0.018 − 0.115 −0.014 − 0.016 −0.022 − 0.154
(−0.216–0.183) (−0.214–0.179) (−0.213–0.178) (−0.352–0.123) (−0.190–0.163) (−0.192–0.160) (−0.197–0.153) (−0.368–0.061)
 Richest −0.185* − 0.186* −0.186* − 0.280* −0.238* − 0.240* −0.237* − 0.282*
(−0.348 - -0.022) (− 0.349 - -0.023) (− 0.348 - -0.024) (−0.493 - -0.066) (− 0.463 - -0.013) (− 0.462 - -0.017) (−0.457 - -0.018) (− 0.507 - -0.057)
Receiving intergenerational support from children (Ref: No)
 Yes 0.020 0.020 0.020 −0.028 0.027 0.028 0.029 −0.066
(−0.197–0.237) (−0.197–0.237) (−0.197–0.238) (−0.200–0.145) (−0.229–0.282) (−0.225–0.281) (−0.229–0.286) (−0.329–0.196)
Co-habiting with children (Ref: No)
 Yes −0.023 − 0.023 −0.023 − 0.017 −0.015 − 0.012 −0.009 − 0.092
(−0.136–0.090) (−0.136–0.091) (−0.136–0.090) (−0.175–0.140) (−0.200–0.169) (−0.196–0.171) (−0.190–0.172) (−0.273–0.089)
 Number of grandchildren 0.012 0.011 0.011 −0.008 0.015 0.018 0.017 0.038
(−0.018–0.043) (−0.019–0.041) (−0.019–0.041) (−0.054–0.037) (−0.034–0.063) (−0.033–0.068) (−0.033–0.067) (−0.003–0.080)
Engagement in social activities (Ref: No)
 Yes −0.062 − 0.062 −0.062 − 0.210*** −0.103* − 0.098* −0.089 − 0.080
(−0.174–0.050) (−0.175–0.051) (−0.174–0.051) (−0.299 - -0.120) (− 0.202 - -0.004) (− 0.195 - -0.001) (−0.187–0.009) (−0.196–0.037)
Suffering from chronic disease (Ref: No)
 Yes 0.198** 0.199** 0.199** 0.175* 0.294*** 0.295*** 0.293*** 0.239***
(0.049–0.347) (0.052–0.347) (0.052–0.347) (0.006–0.344) (0.156–0.433) (0.157–0.432) (0.156–0.431) (0.126–0.352)
 ADLs score 0.127*** 0.127*** 0.127*** 0.159*** 0.108*** 0.107*** 0.109*** 0.110***
(0.073–0.181) (0.073–0.181) (0.073–0.181) (0.096–0.222) (0.066–0.151) (0.064–0.150) (0.066–0.152) (0.052–0.168)
 IADLs score 0.059*** 0.059*** 0.059*** 0.063*** 0.090*** 0.091*** 0.091*** 0.092***
(0.030–0.088) (0.030–0.088) (0.030–0.089) (0.031–0.096) (0.064–0.117) (0.064–0.117) (0.064–0.119) (0.065–0.119)
Random-effects (intercept)
 Level 4 (SE) 0.031 0.031 0.031 0.022 0.015 0.016 0.016 0.001
(0.013) (0.013) (0.013) (0.014) (0.013) (0.013) (0.013) (0.009)
 Level 3 (SE) 0.042 0.043 0.043 0.042 0.036 0.036 0.035 0.049
(0.016) (0.016) (0.016) (0.033) (0.015) (0.015) (0.015) (0.031)
 Level 2 (SE) 0.034 0.033 0.033 0.005 0.064 0.061 0.063 0.006
(0.020) (0.020) (0.020) (0.006) (0.027) (0.026) (0.027) (0.025)
  1. Model 1 examined the association between grandchild-care duration and depressive symptoms among all participants. Model 2 examined the association between grandchild-care provision and depressive symptoms among all participants. Models 3 and 4 examined the association between grandchild-care intensity and depressive symptoms, among all participants and caregivers, respectively
  2. Multilevel linear regression was employed
  3. Depressive symptoms were measured by square root of CES-D
  4. Ref Reference, SE Standard Error, CI Confidence Interval, ADLs Activities of Daily Living, IADLs Instrumental Activities of Daily Living
  5. *** p < 0.001, ** p < 0.01, * p < 0.05, p < 0.1