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Table 2 Basic characteristics of non-caregivers and caregivers in unmatched and matched cohorts

From: Gender differences in depressive symptoms of rural Chinese grandparents caring for grandchildren

Variables Unmatched (N = 4833) Matched (N = 4187)
Non- caregivers (%) Caregivers (%) P-value Non- caregivers (%) Caregivers (%) P-valuec
N 2199 2634   1975 2212  
Agea, years    < 0.001    0.993
 45–59 711 (32.33) 1223 (46.43)   881 (44.62) 987 (44.62)  
 ≥60 1488 (67.67) 1411 (53.57)   1094 (55.38) 1225 (55.38)  
Education levela    < 0.001    1.000
 Illiterate 650 (29.56) 663 (25.17)   479 (24.23) 536 (24.23)  
 Primary school or below 1069 (48.61) 1203 (45.67)   967 (48.96) 1083 (48.96)  
 Middle school 361 (16.42) 560 (21.26)   407 (20.61) 456 (20.61)  
 High school or above 119 (5.41) 208 (7.90)   122 (6.19) 137 (6.19)  
Marital statusa    < 0.001    0.983
 Married 582 (26.47) 411 (15.60)   254 (12.84) 284 (12.84)  
 Separated/Divorced/Wido-wed/Never married 1617 (73.53) 2223 (84.40)   1721 (87.16) 1928 (87.16)  
Work statusa    < 0.001    0.994
 Unemployed 712 (32.38) 690 (26.20)   460 (23.28) 515 (23.28)  
 Working 1487 (67.62) 1944 (73.80)   1515 (76.72) 1697 (76.72)  
Annual household incomea    < 0.001    0.999
 Poorest 203.28 (172.07) 219.23 (183.78)   212.12 (173.27) 220.90 (183.18)  
 2nd quintile 1225.98 (446.14) 1198.56 (442.78)   1304.82 (467.74) 1224.17 (462.97)  
 Middle 4622.72 (1928.62) 4687.21 (1964.16)   4740.37 (1886.45) 4786.37 (1959.94)  
 4th quintile 17,909.42 (6331.63) 18,762.86 (6572.85)   17,893.18 (6046.25) 18,599.94 (6400.95)  
 Richest 12,2600.7 (414,961.1) 101,823.9 (184,383.4)   114,110.5 (336,610.3) 101,205.1 (187,140.5)  
Receiving intergenerational support from childrena    0.814    0.982
 No 312 (14.19) 380 (14.43)   221 (11.21) 248 (11.21)  
 Yes 1887 (85.81) 2254 (85.57)   1754 (88.79) 1964 (88.79)  
Co-habiting with childrena    < 0.001    1.000
 No 1514 (68.85) 1468 (55.73)   1150 (58.23) 1288 (58.23)  
 Yes 685 (31.15) 1166 (44.27)   825 (41.77) 924 (41.77)  
Number of grandchildrenb 2.65 (1.89) 3.00 (1.97) < 0.001 2.55 (1.64) 2.55 (1.64) 1.000
Engagement in social activitiesa    0.001    0.085
 No 1120 (50.93) 1211 (45.98)   958 (48.50) 1014 (45.84)  
 Yes 1079 (49.07) 1423 (54.02)   1017 (51.50) 1198 (54.16)  
Suffering from chronic diseasea    0.048    0.923
 No 579 (26.33) 761 (28.89)   575 (29.11) 647 (29.25)  
 Yes 1620 (73.67) 1873 (71.11)   1400 (70.89) 1565 (70.75)  
ADLs scoreb 0.69 (1.77) 0.50 (1.33) < 0.001 0.55 (1.44) 0.50 (1.33) 0.553
IADLs scoreb 1.34 (2.78) 1.03 (2.32) < 0.001 1.09 (2.41) 1.02 (2.35) 0.113
  1. ADLs Activities of Daily Living, IADLs Instrumental Activities of Daily Living
  2. aChi-square test
  3. bUnivariate ANOVA
  4. cConsidering match weights