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Table 4 Summary of studies from included reviews

From: Examining the effectiveness of place-based interventions to improve public health and reduce health inequalities: an umbrella review

Review authors Intervention(s) (n = no. of studies) Outcome(s) Summary results
↑ = increase/ improved
↓ = decrease/ deteriorated
↔ = no change
(represent sig. Results unless reported otherwise)
R-AMSTAR quality appraisal rating
Physical environment interventions (n = 50)
Infrastructure to encourage physical activity (n = 14)
Cycling and walking routes (n = 12)
  Hunter et al. (2015) [70] New greenway (n = 1) Health behaviours: physical activity 22 (low)
  Mayne et al. (2015) [71] Bike lane (n = 2); bike share (n = 1) Health behaviours: physical activity, active transport. Bike lane ↑; bike share ↑ 21 (low)
  Macmillan et al. (2018) [73] Cycle lanes (n = 1) Health behaviours: physical activity 34 (high)
  Stappers et al. (2018) [75] New on- and off-road walking/cycling routes (n = 7) Health behaviours: physical activity Extended greenway ↔; cycling paths ↑; walking/cycling trail ↓; (greater ↑ for those in close proximity to intervention) 28 (medium)
Outdoor gyms (n = 2)
  Hunter et al. (2015) [70] Outdoor gym (n = 1) Health behaviours: Physical activity Non-sig ↑ 22 (low)
  Hunter et al. (2019) [66] Outdoor gym (n = 1) Health behaviours:
Physical activity
36 (high)
Housing (n = 16)
Home modifications (n = 3)
  Sauni et al. (2015) [72] Home modifications (n = 1) Health outcomes: asthma 41 (high)
  McCartney et al. (2017) [22] Home modifications (n = 1) Health outcomes: self-reported physical and mental health. 17 (low)
  Ige et al. (2019) [67] Home modifications (n = 1) Health outcomes: injuries from falls ↓ in injuries from falls (positive effect) 23 (medium)
Provision of housing (n = 13)
  Persaud et al. (2019) [68] Provision of housing (n = 13) Health outcomes: 34 reported including quality of life, physical health, mental health. 33 (medium)
Improving the public realm (n = 4)
  Moore et al. (2018) [74] Green storm water infrastructure; urban and landscape development (n = 2) Health outcomes: quality of life
Social determinants outcomes: perceptions of safety and social cohesion
Green storm water infrastructure ↔ (perceptions of place/safety, social cohesion); Urban and landscape development ↑ (quality of life) 36 (high)
  Hunter et al. (2019) [66] Greening vacant lots (n = 2) Health outcomes: heart rate
Social determinants outcomes: gun assaults, perceptions of safety, crime rates
↑ (perceptions of safety) ↓ (gun assaults, crime rates, and heart rate) 36 (high)
Parks and playgrounds (n = 6)
  Audrey & Batista-Ferrer (2015) [21] Removal of park seating (n = 1) Health behaviours: physical activity 31 (medium)
  Mayne et al. (2015) [71] New park (n = 1) Health behaviours: physical activity 21 (low)
  Hunter et al. (2015) [70] Park re-development (n = 1) Health behaviours: physical activity 22 (low)
  Hunter et al. (2019) [66] Development of new, renovating existing, parks (n = 3) Health behaviours: physical activity 36 (high)
Supermarkets (n = 4)
  Macmillan et al. (2018) [73] New supermarket/farmers market (n = 2) Health outcomes: self-reported Body Mass Index (BMI).
Health behaviours: physical activity; consumption of fruit and vegetables
New supermarket ↔ (self-report BMI); Farmers market ↑ (self-report fruit and vegetables); transport ↑ (physical activity for new users and greater for those living closer) 34 (high)
  Tseng et al. (2018) [76] New supermarkets (n = 2) Health behaviours: consumption of fruit and vegetables
Health outcomes: weight/BMI
Fruit and vegetable consumption ↔; overall caloric intake ↓; BMI↓ (intervention site); BMI↑ (control site) 33 (medium)
Transport (n = 4)
  Moore et al (2018) [74] Segregated bus track with cycle/walking routes included (n = 1) Health outcomes: mental health ↔ (when controlled from baseline) 36 (high)
  Macmillan et al. (2018) [73] New light rail transit (n = 3) Health behaviours: physical activity. ↑ (for new users and greater for those living closer proximity); ↓ (for former users) 34 (high)
Multi-component interventions (n = 2)
  Audrey & Batista-Ferrer (2015) [21] Relocation to Smart Growth Community (n = 1) Health behaviours: physical activity 31 (medium)
  McCartney et al. (2017) [22] Urban renewal programme (n = 1) Health outcomes: self-reported health, perception of place. ↑ (perception of place) ↔ (self-reported health) 17 (low)
Economic interventions (n = 1)
  Brown et al. (2015) [69] Traffic congestion charge (n = 1) Health behaviours: active transport 26 (medium)