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Table 5 Univariate and multivariate logistic regression analysis showing predictors of acceptance for a COVID-19 vaccine

From: Population preferences and attitudes towards COVID-19 vaccination: a cross-sectional study from Pakistan

Variable Acceptability Unadjusted Adjusted
No Yes COR (95%CI) P aOR (95%CI) P
Age
  < 20 98 (28.2) 250 (71.8) 1.00    
 21–30 125 (28.7) 310 (71.3) 0.97 (0.71–1.33) 0.859   
 31–40 19 (34.5) 36 (65.5) 0.74 (0.41–1.36) 0.334   
 41–50 13 (41.9) 18 (58.1) 0..54 (0.26–1.15) 0.111   
  > 51 3 (21.4) 11 (78.6) 1.44 (0.39–5.26) 0.584   
Gender
 Female 112 (43.4) 280 (44.8) 1.06 (0.79–1.42) 0.706   
 Male 146 (56.6) 345 (55.2) 1.0    
Marital Status?
 Married 55 (33.3) 110 (66.7) 0.79 (0.55–1.13) 0.218   
 Unmarried 203 (28.3) 515 (71.7) 1.0    
Residence?
 Urban 191 (27.0) 517 (73.0) 1.0   1.00  
 Rural 67 (38.3) 108 (61.7) 0.59 (0.42–0.84) 0.003 0.87 (0.59–1.27) 0.48
Education?
 No formal education 6 (28.6) 15 (71.4) 1.00    
  ≤ 10 years 18 (40.0) 27 (60.0) 0.60 (0.19–1.84) 0.371   
 11–12 95 (32.6) 196 (67.4) 0.83 (0.31–2.19) 0.700   
  ≥ 13 139 (26.4) 387 (73.6) 1.11 (0.42–2.93) 0.827   
Employment?
 Employed 75 (31.8) 161 (68.2) 0.88 (0.61–1.17) 0.312   
 Non-Employed 183 (28.3) 464 (71.7) 1.0    
Monthly Family Income?
  < 25,000 65 (37.1) 110 (62.9) 1.00   1.00  
 25,000–50,000 102 (34.8) 191 (65.2) 1.81 (0.75–2.63) 0.027 1.73 (1.14–2.64) 0.010
  > 50,000 91 (21.9) 324 (78.1) 2.12 (1.43–3.09) < 0.001 1.97 (0.63–2.98) 0.117
Do you have any COVID-related Symptoms?
 No 198 (28.2) 503 (71.8) 1.00    
 Not sure 36 (34.3) 69 (65.7) 1.07 (0.46–1.63) 0.659   
 Yes 24 (31.2) 53 (68.8) 1.15 (0.69–1.91) 0.590   
Have you been diagnosed with COVID-19 by a health professional?
 No 250 (29.4) 600 (70.6) 1.00    
 Yes 8 (24.2) 25 (75.8) 1.32 (0.56–2.93) 0.523   
Do you know any friend, family member, or colleague diagnosed with COVID-19?
 No 145 (34.4) 277 (65.6) 1.00   1.00  
 Yes 113 (24.5) 348 (75.5) 1.61 (1.20–2.16) 0.001 1.27 (0.91–1.79) 0.166
Do you know any friend, family member, or colleague died due to COVID-19?
 No 210 (32.5) 437 (67.5) 1.00   1.00  
 Yes 48 (20.3) 188 (79.7) 1.88 (1.32–2.69) 0.001 1.74 (1.16–2.62) 0.007
Do you have any chronic diseases? (Diabetes, Hypertension, Heart Disease, etc.)
 No 230 (28.6) 573 (71.4) 1.00    
 Yes 28 (35.0) 52 (65.0) 0.75 (0.46–1.21) 0.234   
Overall Attitude towards COVID-19 Vaccine
 Negative 152 (51.9) 141 (48.1) 1.00   1  
 Positive 106 (18.0) 484 (82.0) 4.92 (3.61–6.72) < 0.001 4.78 (3.47–6.59) < 0.001
  1. Variable with P < 0.2 were entered in multivariate logistic regression analysis. COR Crude odds Ratio, aOR adjusted odds ratio
  2. P-value < 0.05 is considered statistically significant