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Table 1 Characteristics of 2016 focus group participants and 2018, 2019 workshop participants

From: A community-engaged approach to understanding environmental health concerns and solutions in urban and rural communities

Year 2016 2018 2019
Location Birmingham Wilcox County p-Valuea Birmingham Wilcox County p-Valuea Birmingham Wilcox County p-Valuea
Number 60 51   23 30   45 42  
Age    7.9E-03*    0.59    2.1E-02*
 Mean(95%CI) 60.1 (59.6–60.6) 51.9 (51.3–52.6)   51.0 (49.7–52.2) 53.1 (52.2–54.0)   49.6 (48.6–50.6) 58.0 (57.5–58.5)  
 Median(range) 62 (23–85) 56 (20–81)   49 (25–71) 58 (19–69)   60 (19–73) 60.5 (34–73)  
 Missing 4 (7%) 2 (4%)   0 (0%) 0 (0%)   6 (13%) 2 (5%)  
Sex    0.11    0.53    0.54
 Female 40 (67%) 41 (80%)   22 (96%) 26 (87%)   32 (71%) 35 (83%)  
 Male 20 (33%) 9 (18%)   1 (4%) 4 (13%)   8 (18%) 5 (12%)  
 Missing 0 (0%) 1 (2%)   0 (0%) 0 (0%)   5 (11%) 2 (5%)  
Race
 African American or Black 56 (93%) 46 (90%) 1.00 23 (100%) 29 (97%) 1.00 38 (84%) 37 (88%) 0.49
 Otherb 3 (5%) 2 (4%)   0 (0%) 1 (3%)   0 (0%) 2 (5%)  
 Missing 1 (2%) 3 (6%)   0 (0%) 0 (0%)   7 (16%) 3 (7%)  
Education    0.66    0.83    1.00
  ≤ High school 29 (48%) 21 (41%)   9 (39%) 10 (33%)   14 (31%) 13 (31%)  
  > High school 29 (48%) 27 (53%)   12 (52%) 18 (60%)   24 (53%) 25 (60%)  
 Missing 2 (3%) 3 (6%)   2 (9%) 2 (7%)   7 (16%) 4 (10%)  
Income    0.16    0.26    1.6E-04*
  < $20,000 41 (68%) 28 (55%)   7 (30%) 15 (50%)   16 (36%) 1 (2%)  
  ≥ $20,000 12 (20%) 17 (33%)   15 (65%) 14 (47%)   19 (42%) 32 (76%)  
 Missing 7 (12%) 6 (12%)   1 (4%) 1 (3%)   10 (22%) 9 (21%)  
Health          1.00
 Goodc 55 (92%) 46 (90%) 1.00 22 (96%) 30 (100%) NA 37 (82%) 37 (88%)  
 Poor 2 (3%) 2 (4%)   0 (0%) 0 (0%)   1 (2%) 1 (2%)  
 Missing 3 (5%) 3 (6%)   1 (4%) 0 (0%)   7 (16%) 4 (10%)  
Participant in monitor study (summer 2017)    NA    0.68    3.4E-05*
 Yes NA NA   16 (66%) 19 (63%)   7 (16%) 25 (60%)  
 No NA NA   6 (26%) 11 (37%)   32 (71%) 12 (29%)  
 Missing NA NA   1 (4%) 0 (0%)   6 (13%) 5 (12%)  
Participant in previous focus groups    NA    0.02*    8.8E-05*
 Yes NA NA   6 (26%) 19 (63%)   8 (18%) 26 (62%)  
 No NA NA   16 (70%) 10 (33%)   30 (67%) 12 (29%)  
 Missing NA NA   1 (4%) 1 (3%)   7 (16%) 4 (10%)  
How long they have lived in this community    NA    0.05    0.011*
 0-5 years NA NA   6 (26%) 1 (3%)   8 (18%) 4 (10%)  
 6–15 years NA NA   2 (9%) 2 (7%)   13 (29%) 4 (10%)  
 More than 15 years NA NA   15 (65%) 26 (87%)   19 (42%) 31 (74%)  
 Missing NA NA   0 (0%) 1 (3%)   5 (11%) 3 (7%)  
  1. * denotes significant difference with a P-value < 0.05
  2. ap-values are the result of the Student’s t test for age, and chi-square test for the rest categories to measure the difference between Birmingham and Wilcox County in 2016, 2018, and 2019, respectively
  3. bIncludes Asian, Alaskan Native or American Indian, White or European, Hispanic or Latino, or mixed race
  4. cIncludes “Excellent”, “Good”, and “Fair”