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Table 2 Drug use among participants with urinalysis in three pilot sites, 2018/2019

From: Towards cross-Canada monitoring of the unregulated street drug supply

  BC
N = 309%
Edmonton
N = 48%
Montreal
N = 341%
Substances Reported Detected Reported Detected Reported Detected
Stimulants
 Cocaine (powder) 20.1 10.4 40.8
 Crack 22.7 35.4 62.4
 Cocaine or cracka 29.4 42.4 39.6 27.1 74.5 86.5
 Methamphetamine 62.8 72.2 58.3 68.8 14.9 43.0
 Speedb 24.8
Opioids
 Heroin 48.5 20.8 22.7
 Morphine 15.2 35.4 12.8
 Heroin or morphinec 52.8 55.0 54.2 43.8 30.6 22.2
 Fentanyld 41.0 59.2 29.2 29.2 3.5 9.7
 Hydromorphone 6.8 20.4 35.4 52.1 22.0 14.7
 Methadone 27.0 31.4 6.3 6.3 25.9 28.7
Depressants
 Benzodiazepines 12.3 9.7 22.9 29.2 16.0 12.6
  1. aBroad spectrum urine toxicology testing cannot distinguish between crack and cocaine
  2. bThe survey used in Montreal listed methamphetamine and speed separately as the content of the latter was not clear to participants or researchers. Accordingly, a measure of detected use of speed is not applicable in the context of this research
  3. cDetected use of heroin or morphine includes 6-monoacetylmorphine (6-MAM; a direct metabolite of heroin), morphine, and morphine metabolites. Detected use is presented together as 6-MAM clears rapidly from urine, after which it is difficult to discern between heroin or morphine use
  4. dFentanyl and fentanyl analogues