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Table 3 Sociodemographic and other characteristics of the participants (N = 372)

From: Association between exposure to ambient air pollution and occurrence of inflammatory acne in the adult population

Variable N (%)
Gender
 Male 122 (32.8%)
 Female 250 (67.2%)
District
 Beirut 62 (16.7%)
 Mount Lebanon 271 (72.8%)
 North Lebanon 27 (7.3%)
 South Lebanon 9 (2.4%)
Bekaa 3 (0.8%)
Acne diagnosis by a dermatologist
 No 248 (66.7%)
 Yes 124 (33.3%)
LEEDS score for the face
  < 2 291 (78.2%)
  ≥ 2 81 (21.8%)
LEEDS score for the back
  < 2 340 (91.4%)
  ≥ 2 32 (8.6%)
LEEDS score for the chest
  < 2 353 (94.9%)
  ≥ 2 19 (5.1%)
Total LEEDS score (face, back and chest)
  < 2 278 (74.7%)
  ≥ 2 94 (25.3%)
Number of times you wash your face per week
 Never 247 (66.4%)
 1–2 times 47 (12.6%)
 3–5 times 46 (12.4%)
 Daily 32 (8.6%)
Skin type
 Normal 88 (23.7%)
 Dry 25 (6.7%)
 Mixed 139 (37.4%)
vOily 90 (24.2%)
 Do not know 30 (8.1%)
Use of hydrating cream (yes) 266 (71.5%)
Use of medical devices (yes) 31 (8.3%)
Use of cream powder (yes) 111 (29.8%)
Stress/sleep deprivation (yes) 174 (46.8%)
Intake of sugar-based products
 1–2 times per week or less 121 (32.5%)
 3–5 times per week 135 (36.3%)
 Every day 116 (31.2%)
Whey proteins intake
 1–2 times per week or less 343 (92.2%)
 3–5 times per week 22 (5.9%)
 Every day 7 (1.9%)
Dairy products intake
 1–2 times per week or less 64 (17.2%)
 3–5 times per week 157 (42.2%)
 Every day 151 (40.6%)
Carbohydrates intake
 1–2 times per week or less 154 (41.4%)
 3–5 times per week 154 (41.4%)
 Every day 64 (17.2%)
Hours in front of screen
 0–1 h 8 (2.2%)
 2–3 h 95 (25.5%)
 4–5 h 133 (35.8%)
 6 h or more 136 (36.6%)
Smoking (yes) 124 (33.3%)
Passive smoking daily (yes) 167 (44.9%)
Living close to a highway/busy road (yes) 119 (32.0%)
Living close to an electric generator (yes) 94 (25.3%)
Living near a power plant (yes) 42 (11.3%)
Working near a power plant (yes) 24 (6.5%)
Driving a car (yes) 328 (88.2%)
Using the air condition in the car (yes) 352 (94.6%)
Hours stuck in traffic per day
 Not applicable 85 (22.8%)
 1–2 h per day 243 (65.3%)
 3–4 h per day 40 (10.8%)
 5 or more hours per day 4 (1.1%)
Hours of outdoor activities per day
 Not applicable 91 (24.5%)
v1–2 h per day 203 (54.6%)
v3–4 h per day 69 (18.5%)
 5 or more hours per day 9 (2.4%)
  Mean ± SD
Age (in years) 29.44 ± 12.71
Body Mass Index (kg/m2) 23.32 ± 4.57
Household crowding index 0.93 ± 0.43
Number of family members with acne or history of acne 0.73 ± 0.76
Exposure to NO2 categories
 None 35 (9.4%)
 Mild 113 (30.4%)
 Moderate 180 (48.4%)
 Severe 44 (11.8%)
Exposure to CO categories
 None 354 (95.2%)
 Mild 16 (4.3%)
 Moderate 2 (0.5%)
 Severe 0 (0%)
Exposure to SO2 categories
 None 273 (73.4%)
 Mild 75 (20.2%)
 Moderate 22 (5.9%)
 Severe 2 (0.5%)
Exposure to O3 categories
 None 328 (88.2%)
 Mild 43 (11.6%)
 Moderate 1 (0.3%)
 Severe 0 (0%)
Exposure to PM10 categories
 None 121 (32.5%)
 Mild 129 (34.7%)
 Moderate 105 (28.2%)
 Severe 17 (4.6%)
Exposure to PM2.5 categories
 None 4 (1.1%)
 Mild 88 (23.7%)
 Moderate 213 (57.3%)
 Severe 67 (18.0%)