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Table 1 Descriptive statistics of sociodemographic data, time use, and wellbeing variables: total, and by gender

From: How is the way we spend our time related to psychological wellbeing? A cross-sectional analysis of time-use patterns in the general population and their associations with wellbeing and life satisfaction

  Total Female Male Difference test
M / n SD / % Min Max M / n SD / % Min Max M / n SD / % Min Max (by gender)
Age (years) 46.87 17.61 18 100 47.12 17.39 18 100 46.60 17.84 18 100 **
Household income (€) 3120.12 2136.49 100 60,000 3102.43 2048.58 150 60,000 3139.20 2227.35 100 60,000  
Number of children in household 0.85 1.25 0 11 0.86 1.24 0 10 0.83 1.26 0 11 **
Gender (1 = female) 15,648 51.90            
Region (1 = East) 6122 20.30    3226 20.62    2896 19.97    
Education Low 19,068 63.24    10,151 64.87    8917 61.48    
  Medium 3547 11.76    1843 11.78    1704 11.75    
  High 7537 25.00    3654 23.35    3883 26.77    ***
Employment None 14,021 46.50    7829 50.03    6192 42.69    
  Part-time 4897 16.24    3979 25.43    918 6.33    ***
  Full-time 11,234 37.26    3840 24.54    7394.00 50.98    ***
Marital status (1 = married) 16,586 55.01    8391 53.62    8195 56.50    ***
Self-rated Health 3.50 1.01 1 5 3.42 1.00 1 5 3.59 1.01 1 5 ***
Life Satisfaction General 7.40 1.75 0 10 7.42 1.76 0 10 7.39 1.74 0 10
  Health 6.85 2.29 0 10 6.72 2.30 0 10 7.00 2.27 0 10 ***
  Sleep 6.70 2.27 0 10 6.48 2.33 0 10 6.93 2.17 0 10 ***
  Free time 7.06 2.16 0 10 6.99 2.22 0 10 7.15 2.09 0 10 ***
  Family 7.97 1.87 0 10 7.94 1.88 0 10 8.01 1.86 0 10 **
Affective wellbeing 14.69 2.73 4 20 14.26 2.82 4 20 15.15 2.55 4 20 ***
Work 4.60 4.40 0 21 3.91 4.03 0 21 5.34 4.65 0 17 ***
Errands 1.09 0.97 0 16 1.28 1.08 0 16 0.89 0.78 0 16 ***
Housework 1.55 1.25 0 23 2.06 1.34 0 23 0.95 0.80 0 10 ***
Child Care 1.60 3.41 0 24 2.30 4.27 0 24 0.85 1.84 0 24 ***
Care 0.18 1.06 0 24 0.23 1.22 0 24 0.12 0.85 0 24 *
Education 0.63 1.87 0 20 0.57 1.79 0 20 0.69 1.95 0 20  
Repairs & garden 0.60 0.89 0 12 0.47 0.77 0 12 0.74 0.98 0 10  
Physical activity 0.64 0.77 0 12 0.60 0.73 0 10 0.68 0.82 0 12  
Leisure 1.77 1.84 0 16 1.72 1.76 0 15 1.83 1.92 0 16  
N / n 30,152     15,648     14,504     
  1. Note. Test significance: ***p ≤ .001, **p ≤ .01, *p ≤ .05, †p ≤ .10. Care: care and support of persons in need of care; Leisure: hobbies and other leisure-time activities