Skip to main content

Table 2 Factor structure of the Myanmar version of the HIV stigma scale

From: Adaptation and validation of a culturally adapted HIV stigma scale in Myanmar

Items Factors
1 2 3 4 5 6
Factor 1: Personalized stigma
 Cronbach’s alpha = 0.933
  I-29 People I care about stopped calling after learning 0.81      
  I-18 Some people who know have grown more distant 0.79      
  I-33 People have physically backed away from me 0.77      
  I-38 People who know tend to ignore my good points 0.77      
  I-35 Stopped socializing with some due to their  reactions 0.76      
  I-36 Have lost friends by telling them I have HIV 0.76      
  I-32 Don’t want me around their children once they know 0.72      
  I-28 People avoid touching me if they know I have HIV 0.64      
  I-24 Hurt by how people reacted to learning I have HIV 0.61      
  I-34 Some people act as though it’s my fault I have HIV 0.51      
Factor 2: Concerns with public attitudes about HIV
 Cronbach’s alpha = 0.939
  I-10 Most people believe a person who has HIV is dirty   0.86     
  I-20 Most are uncomfortable around someone with HIV   0.85     
  I-16 Most with HIV are rejected when others learn   0.82     
  I-9 People with HIV are treated like outcasts   0.78     
  I-40 Knowing, they look for flaws in your character   0.75     
  I-14 Most people think a person with HIV is disgusting   0.72     
  I-5 People with HIV lose jobs when employers learn   0.72     
Factor 3: Negative self-image
 Cronbach’s alpha = 0.914
  I-23 Having HIV in my body is disgusting to me    0.86    
  I-12 Having HIV makes me feel unclean    0.83    
  I-7 I feel I’m not as good as others because I have HIV    0.82    
  I-15 Having HIV makes me feel I’m a bad person    0.78    
  I-2 I feel guilty because I have HIV    0.76    
  I-3 People’s attitudes make me feel worse about myself    0.67    
Factor 4: healthcare provider’s stigma
 Cronbach’s alpha = 0.802
  I-46 I been refused medical care or denied hospital services because I have HIV.     0.85   
  I-45 A healthcare worker has not wanted to touch me because I have HIV.     0.82   
  I-44 Medical provider or hospital worker have mistreated me because of my HIV.     0.75   
  I-47 A hospital worker made my HIV infection publicly known by marking HIV on my medical record.     0.61   
Factor 5: Disclosure concerns
 Cronbach’s alpha = 0.836
  I-17 I am very careful whom I tell that I have HIV      0.72  
  I-37 I told people close to me to keep my HIV a secret      0.65  
  I-6 I work hard to keep my HIV a secret      0.64  
  I-25 I worry people who know I have HIV will tell others      0.56  
  I-19 I worry about people discriminating against me      0.46  
Factor 6: Religious concerns
 Cronbach’s alpha = 0.703
  I-41 I pay for karma or sins because I have HIV       0.77
  I-43 People would think that I did something wrong in my last life once they know that I have HIV.       0.73
  I-42 In order to end the suffering of HIV this life, I have to do good things (e.g. praying, donation).       0.67
  Eigenvalue 6.18 5.52 4.85 2.69 2.65 2.00
  Cumulative percentages 17.67 33.43 47.29 54.98 62.53 68.23