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Table 1 Characteristics of the participants: daily pain, age, grade, gender, parental educational level, sleep duration, use of medication, and self-efficacy (n = 12,867)

From: Associations between pain, self-efficacy, sleep duration, and symptoms of depression in adolescents: a cross-sectional survey

  Girls Boys p-value*
Total number of participants, n (%) 6318 (49) 6549 (51)  
Daily pain
 Head, n (%) 659 (11) 161 (3) < 0.001
 Shoulders/neck, n (%) 545 (9) 214 (4) < 0.001
 Joints/muscles, n (%) 312 (5) 195 (3) < 0.001
 Stomach, n (%) 287 (5) 109 (2) < 0.001
 Any of the above, n (%) 1126 (19) 438 (7) < 0.001
Self-efficacy
 Self-efficacy, mean (95% CI) 60 (59–61) 70 (70–71) < 0.001
Sleep
 Short sleep duration, weekdays (< 8 h), n (%) 3104 (59) 2726 (52) < 0.001
Depression
 Symptoms of depression (> 3), n% 1275 (21) 366 (6) < 0.001
Age
 8th grade junior high school (14–15 yrs), n (%) 1537 (25) 1523 (24)  
 9th grade junior high school (15–16 yrs), n (%) 1473 (24) 1562 (25)  
 10th grade junior high school (16–17 yrs), n (%) 1506 (24) 1637 (26)  
 11th grade senior high school (17–18 yrs), n (%) 1649 (27) 1628 (26) 0.137
Parental education
 Low paternal education, n (%) 1888 (34) 1937 (34) 0.601
 Low maternal education, n (%) 1661 (29) 1638 (28) 0.306
Medication use
 High use (more than once a week), n (%) 1420 (23) 673 (11) < 0.001
  1. *The chi-square test was used for categorical variables, and the independent-sample t test was used for continuous variables