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Table 3 Multivariable regression analysis examining heat protection behaviours always/often taken by potentially vulnerable and vulnerable groups (n = 431)

From: Public attitudes to, and behaviours taken during, hot weather by vulnerable groups: results from a national survey in England

  Avoid sun
OR (95%CI)
Drink cool fluids
OR (95%CI)
Covers skin
OR (95%CI)
Limits physical activity
OR (95%CI)
Electric fan
OR (95%CI)
Close curtain on exposed windows day
OR (95%CI)
Close exposed windows day
OR (95%CI)
Open windows night
OR (95%CI)
Avoid alcohol
OR (95%CI)
Age
 18–34 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1
 35–54 1.7 (0.7–4.2) 0.4 (0.0–5.5) 0.4 (0.1–1.1) 0.5 (0.2–1.6) 0.2 (0.1–0.7) 2.2 (0.8–6.2) 0.7 (0.3–1.9) 1.6 (0.4–6.2) 0.9 (0.3–2.8)
 55–74 2.5 (1.0–6.5) 0.4 (0.0–5.8) 1.0 (0.3–2.7) 0.6 (0.2–1.9) 0.3 (0.1–0.9) 3.2 (1.1–9.1) 1.3 (0.5–3.6) 0.8 (0.2–2.9) 1.0 (0.3–3.0)
 75 and over 4.1 (1.2–14.7) 0.3 (0.0–4.6) 0.8 (0.2–2.6) 2.2 (0.6–8.0) 0.4 (0.1–1.8) 1.7 (0.5–5.9) 1.4 (0.4–4.6) 0.3 (0.1–1.2) 2.0 (0.5–7.5)
Health
 Good/very good 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1
 Fair 1.8 (0.8–3.8) 0.8 (0.3–2.3) 1.2 (0.6–2.4) 1.3 (0.6–2.8) 3.0 (1.3–6.8) 1.4 (0.7–2.9) 2.1 (1.0–4.5) 1.3 (0.5–3.3) 2.3 (1.1–5.2)
 Bad/very bad 2.1 (1.0–4.3) 0.6 (0.2–1.4) 0.8 (0.4–1.7) 1.4 (0.6–3.0) 3.4 (1.5–7.5) 1.5 (0.7–3.2) 2.2 (1.0–4.8) 0.8 (0.3–1.9) 2.8 (1.2–6.3)
LLSI
 No 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1
 Does not affect day-to-day life 0.4 (0.1–1.0) 1.2 (0.4–3.6) 0.7 (0.3–2.0) 0.7 (0.3–1.7) 0.5 (0.2–1.5) 0.8 (0.3–2.0) 0.8 (0.3–2.1) 0.8 (0.2–2.4) 1.2 (0.5–3.0)
 Affects day-to-day life 0.8 (0.3–1.9) 0.9 (0.4–2.5) 0.4 (0.2–1.0) 0.9 (0.4–2.1) 0.6 (0.3–1.6) 0.7 (0.3–1.7) ) 0.3 (0.1–0.7) 0.5 (0.2–1.4) 1.5 (0.6–3.7)
Household type
 Living with someone 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1
 Living alone 0.9 (0.5–1.7) 1.0 (0.5–2.3) 0.9 (0.5–1.7) 0.7 (0.4–1.4) 0.4 (0.2–0.8) 1.1 (0.6–2.2) 1.2 (0.7–2.4) 0.5 (0.2–1.0) 0.4 (0.2–0.8)
Heard alert advice
 Did not hear advice 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1
 Heard advice 1.4 (0.8–2.4) 1.9 (0.9–3.7) 1.1 (0.6–1.9) 1.0 (0.6–1.9) 1.3 (0.7–2.5) 1.0 (0.6–1.8) 1.7 (1.0–3.0) 2.2 (1.1–4.5) 1.4 (0.8–2.4)
Effective
 Not/slightly/somewhat 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1
 Completely/very 2.6 (1.5–4.5) 6.2 (2.8–13.7) 2.8 (1.5–5.1) 3.7 (2.0–7.0) 4.9 (2.7–9.1) 6.5 (3.7–11.4) 9.6 (4.1–22.5) 3.7 (1.6–8.4) 4.3 (2.4–7.8)
Hot weather is a risk to health
 Disagree/strongly disagree 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1
 Neutral 1.3 (0.6–2.6) 1.6 (0.6–4.7) 1.0 (0.5–1.9) 1.0 (0.4–2.2) 1.4 (0.6–3.2) 2.2 (1.0–4.7) 2.5 (1.2–5.3) 0.5 (0.2–1.2) 1.4 (0.7–2.8)
 Agree/strongly agree 1.9 (1.0–3.7) 1.4 (0.5–3.9) 1.3 (0.6–2.7) 2.1 (1.0–4.3) 1.3 (0.6–2.7) 1.3 (0.6–2.7) 1.4 (0.6–3.0) 0.7 (0.3–1.6) 1.0 (0.5–2.0)
Love hot weather
 Disagree/strongly disagree 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1
 Neutral 0.8 (0.4–1.8) 1.3 (0.4–4.2) 1.0 (0.4–2.3) 0.5 (0.2–1.1) 0.4 (0.2–1.0) 0.4 (0.1–0.9) 1.2 (0.5–2.9) 0.4 (0.1–1.0) 0.9 (0.4–2.0)
 Agree/strongly agree 0.8 (0.3–1.6) 1.2 (0.4–3.6) 0.4 (0.2–0.9) 0.6 (0.3–1.3) 0.9 (0.4–1.9) 0.4 (0.2–0.8) 1.1 (0.5–2.5) 0.6 (0.2–1.7) 0.5 (0.2–1.2)
Sex
 Male 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1
 Female 1.9 (1.1–3.3) 1.8 (0.9–3.8) 0.8 (0.5–1.5) 1.8 (0.9–3.4) 1.1 (0.6–2.0) 1.3 (0.7–2.3) 0.9 (0.5–1.6) 1.2 (0.5–2.6) 1.9 (1.1–3.3)
Ethnicity
 White 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1
 Other 2.1 (0.7–6.6) 0.4 (0.1–1.5) 0.3 (0.1–1.1) 1.7 (0.6–5.1) 1.1 (0.3–3.9) 1.3 (0.3–5.1) 1.2 (0.4–4.1) 0.7 (0.1–3.7) 4.4 (1.1–17.2)
Education
 Degree/higher 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1
 A-level/equivalent 0.4 (0.2–1.1) 1.6 (0.5–4.8) 0.6 (0.3–1.3) 0.3 (0.1–0.7) 1.9 (0.7–4.8) 0.7 (0.3–1.6) 0.7 (0.3–1.8) 1.7 (0.3–8.0) 0.5 (0.2–1.2)
 Below A-level/none 0.5 (0.2–1.1) 1.4 (0.6–3.4) 0.7 (0.3–1.5) 0.6 (0.2–1.3) 1.9 (0.7–3.9) 0.5 (0.2–1.1) 1.0 (0.4–2.3) 0.5 (0.2–1.5) 1.1 (0.5–2.3)
 Other 0.8 (0.3–2.3) 4.9 (1.0–23.7) 1.2 (0.4–3.9) 0.7 (0.2–2.3) 2.5 (1.0–6.5) 0.9 (0.4–2.4) 1.5 (0.4–4.9) 1.5 (0.3–7.5) 1.2 (0.4–3.6)
Monthly household income
 Less than £1200 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1
 £1201 - £2200 1.1 (0.6–2.3) 0.8 (0.3–2.0) 0.9 (0.5–1.8) 1.3 (0.6–2.9) 0.6 (0.3–1.3) 1.0 (0.5–2.1) 0.9 (0.5–1.9) 0.7 (0.3–1.7) 1.7 (0.8–3.7)
 £2201 - £3700 1.5 (0.7–3.4) 1.8 (0.5–6.2) 1.7 (0.8–3.6) 1.9 (0.9–4.2) 1.2 (0.5–2.8) 0.8 (0.4–1.9) 0.6 (0.2–1.3) 1.3 (0.5–3.5) 0.7 (0.3–1.7)
 £3701 or more 0.4 (0.1–1.1) 5.0 (1.1–22.1) 2.2 (0.8–6.0) 3.0 (1.0–9.2) 2.8 (1.1–7.2) 0.6 (0.2–1.6) 1.4 (0.5–3.9) 6.8 (1.0–47.0) 0.4 (0.2–1.2)
Region
 North 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1
 Midlands 1.3 (0.6–2.6) 1.9 (0.5–7.4) 0.8 (0.4–1.8) 1.1 (0.5–2.5) 2.2 (1.0–4.9) 1.5 (0.7–3.4) 0.6 (0.3–1.3) 0.8 (0.3–2.0) 1.1 (0.5–2.4)
 East 0.8 (0.3–1.9) 0.6 (0.2–1.7) 0.6 (0.3–1.6) 1.5 (0.6–4.1) 1.9 (0.7–5.2) 1.4 (0.6–3.4) 0.6 (0.2–1.7) 0.7 (0.2–2.1) 1.3 (0.5–3.1)
 London & South East 0.9 (0.4–2.0) 1.4 (0.5–3.8) 0.7 (0.3–1.4) 0.9 (0.4–2.1) 2.1 (1.0–4.4) 2.4 (1.1–5.3) 0.7 (0.3–1.5) 0.8 (0.3–2.2) 0.8 (0.4–1.6)
 South West 1.8 (0.6–4.8) 1.0 (0.3–3.7) 0.7 (0.3–2.0) 1.0 (0.4–2.7) 1.0 (0.3–3.5) 1.2 (0.5–3.1) 0.4 (0.1–1.3) 22.6 (2.1–248.1) 2.5 (0.8–8.1)
Location
 Rural 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1
 Urban 0.9 (0.4–1.7) 1.5 (0.7–3.3) 0.9 (0.4–1.9) 1.0 (0.5–1.9) 1.4 (0.6–3.5) 0.8 (0.4–1.7) 1.9 (0.9–3.9) 1.3 (0.5–3.0) 1.5 (0.7–3.1)
  1. Note: Each logistic regression model controls for all covariates shown in the table
  2. Bold text p < 0.05