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Table 3 Effect of individual, community and societal level factors on ITN utilisation among pregnant women

From: Individual, community and societal correlates of insecticide treated net use among pregnant women in sub-Saharan Africa: a multi-level analysis

  Model 1 Model 2 Model 3 Model 4 Model 5
Empty Model OR [95% Crl] OR [95% Crl] OR [95% Crl] aOR [95% Crl]
Fixed effect
Individual level
  Age, years
   15–19    0.85 [0.30–0.23]      0.84 [0.67–1.24]
   20–24    1.16 [0.88–1.53]      1.18 [0.84–1.30]
   25–29    1.14 [0.87–1.50]      2.02 [0.81–3.01]
   30–34    1.14* [1.06–1.49]      1.11** [1.18–1.60]
   35–39    1.08 [0.82–1.43]      1.14 [0.79–1.51]
   40–44    1.06 [0.79–1.42]      2.09 [0.66–2.39]
   45–49    1 [1]      1 [1]
  Education
   No education    1.13 [0.95–1.34]      1.15* [1.03–2.10]
   Primary    1.13 [0.96–1.34]      1.17* [1.07–1.32]
   Secondary    1.09 [0.93–1.28]      1.08 [0.91–1.28]
   Higher    1 [1]      1 [1]
  Marital Status
   Married    1.08 [0.99–1.17]      1.09 [0.99–1.27]
   Cohabiting    1 [1]      1 [1]
  Health Decision Making
   Alone    1.20 [0.88–1.63]      1.21 [0.78–1.72]
   With Partner    1.31 [0.97–1.77]      1.31 [0.91–1.80]
   Husband/Partner Alone    1.35* [1.02–1.82]      1.37 [0.94–1.69]
   Other person    1 [1]      1 [1]
  Wanted current pregnancy
   Wanted    1.06 [0.95–1.20]      1.12** [1.03–1.22]
   Later    1.07 [0.94–1.21]      1.09* [1.04–1.18]
   Not at all    1 [1]      1 [1]
  Health Insurance
   No    0.75*** [0.66–0.85]      0.77*** [0.63–0.88]
   Yes    1 [1]      1 [1]
  Frequency of listening to radio
   Not at all    0.93 [0.76–1.14]      0.92* [0.77–0.96]
   Less than once a week    1.02 [0.84–1.26]      1.04 [0.83–1.30]
   At least once a week    1.12 [0.92–1.37]      1.14 [0.94–1.41]
   Almost every day    1 [1]      1 [1]
  Frequency of watching T.V
   Not at all    1.33** [1.08–1.64]      1.29* [1.12–1.32]
   Less than once a week    1.15 [0.92–1.44]      1.18 [0.91–1.46]
   At least once a week    1.14 [0.93–1.42]      1.20 [0.91–1.48]
   Almost every day    1 [1]      1 [1]
  Frequency of reading Newspaper
   Not at all    0.97 [0.63–1.50]      0.99 [0.67–1.48]
   Less than once a week    1.04 [0.67–1.61]      1.09 [0.81–1.88]
   At least once a week    1.10 [0.71–1.71]      1.14 [0.75–1.81]
   Almost every day    1 [1]      1 [1]
Community level
  Residence
   Urban      1.02 [0.96–1.09]    1.21** [1.14–1.30]
   Rural      1 [1]    1 [1]
  Wealth quintile
   Poorest          0.68*** [0.72–0.90]
   Poorer          1.08 [0.93–1.16]
   Middle          1.09 [0.89–1.14]
   Richer          1.04 [0.85–1.06]
   Richest          1 [1]
  Family head
   Male      1.31*** [1.21–1.41]    1.31*** [1.29–1.42]
   Female      1 [1]    1 [1]
  Community literacy level
  Low      1 [1]    1 [1]
   Medium      1.17 [0.94–1.21]    1.21 [0.92–1.29]
   High      2.11** [1.99–3.21]    2.26** [2.11–3.20]
  Community socio-economic status
   Low      1 [1]    1 [1]
   Medium      1.72* [1.40–1.91]    1.75* [1.40–2.22]
   High      2.22** [2.05–3.24]    2.28** [2.12–3.39]
Societal level
  Geographical location in SSA
   Western        16.45*** [3.67–73.92] 19.51*** [5.19–33.04]
   Eastern        13.91*** [3.46–55.95] 15. 69*** [4.70–30.19]
   Central        14.56*** [3.65–58.10] 16.13*** [3.81–29.99]
   Southern        1 [1] 1 [1]
Random-effect
Societal factors
  Variance (95% CrI) 1.54 [1.21–1.87] 1.56 [1.22–1.91] 1.55 [1.24–1.89] 1.45 [1.17–1.64] 1.51 [1.15–1. 71]
  VPC %, (95% Crl) 38.05 [25.60–49.20] 33.40 [21.80–39.80] 22.89 [15.64–29.1] 30.9 [21.50–44.60] 39.70 [34.01–43.05]
  MOR (95% Crl) 2.02 [1.55–2.43] 2.04 [1.56–2.48] 2.10 [1.55–2.42] 2.90 [2.48–3.14] 4.47 [3.53–4.97]
  Explained variation (%) 1.00 [1] 33.7 [31.8–39.5] 24.43 [19.8–30.1] 15.2 [14.30–15.80] 24.09 [21.40–28.90]
Community level
  Variance (95% CrI) 0.33 [0.28–0.38] 0.33 [0.28–0.39] 0.34 [0.27–0.38] 0.38 [0.32–0.44] 0.46 [0.35–0.49]
  VPC %(95% Crl) 20.90 [13.0–27.5] 20.70 [12.7–27.4] 20.71 [17.41–29.34] 18.21 [14.80–26.41] 19.74 [13.7–25.22]
  MOR (95% CrI) 1.73 [1.66–1.80] 1.73 [1.64–1.80] 1.81 [1.62–1.72] 1.92 [1.21–2.05] 1.81 [1.69–1.88]
  Explained variation (%) 1.00 [1] 45.30 [41.5–50.9] 33.6 [28.7–38.9] 28.92 [22.41–33.82] 65.4 [59.2–72.1]
Model fit statistics
  Bayesian DIC 33,666   33,449   34,590   33,355   35,765  
Sample size
  Societal level 21   21   21   21   21  
  Community level 9350   9350   9350   9350   9350  
  Individual level 25,473   25,473   25,473   25,473   25,473  
  1. OR Odds Ratio, CrI Credible Interval, VPC Variance Partition Coefficient, MOR Median Odds Ratio; 1 = reference; *p < 0.05, **p < 0.01, ***p < 0.001]