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Table 2 Logistic regression estimates and odds ratio of different socioeconomic and demographic variables on vitamin A deficiency in Rural and Urban areas of Bangladesh, 2017–18

From: Rural-urban determinants of vitamin a deficiency among under 5 children in Bangladesh: Evidence from National Survey 2017–18

Characteristic Vitamin A deficiency in Urban area Vitamin A deficiency in Rural area
Coefficient (β) SE (β) Odds ratio of β (95% CI) Coefficient (β) SE (β) Odds ratio of β (95% CI)
Division
 Barisal (ref)
 Chittagong −0.06 0.22 0.94 (0.61, 1.45) 0.23 0.14 1.26 (0.95, 1.66)
 Dhaka −0.38* 0.21 0.68 (0.45, 1.03) −0.12 0.16 0.89 (0.66, 1.2)
 Khulna 0.03 0.24 1.03 (0.64, 1.64) 0.13 0.16 1.14 (0.84, 1.55)
 Mymensing 0.10 0.25 1.1 (0.68, 1.8) 0.32* 0.15 1.38 (1.03, 1.83)
 Rajshahi −0.35* 0.24 0.7 (0.44, 1.12) 0.16 0.15 1.18 (0.87, 1.59)
 Rangpur 0.03 0.24 1.03 (0.64, 1.65) 0.35** 0.16 1.42 (1.05, 1.92)
 Sylhet −0.20 0.23 0.82 (0.52, 1.28) −0.02 0.14 0.98 (0.74, 1.3)
Religion
 Islam (ref)
 Others 0.40** 0.20 1.49 (1, 2.21) 0.33 0.14 1.39 (1.05, 1.84)
Sex of household head
 Male (ref)
 Female 0.02 0.18 1.02 (0.71, 1.46) 0.02 0.11 1.03 (0.83, 1.27)
Wealth index
 Poorest (ref)
 Poor 0.02* 0.24 1.02 (0.64, 1.63) 0.01* 0.10 1.01 (0.83, 1.22)
 Middle 0.16* 0.22 1.17 (0.77, 1.8) 0.04* 0.11 1.04 (0.83, 1.3)
 Richer −0.20* 0.19 0.82 (0.56, 1.19) −0.05 0.13 0.95 (0.74, 1.22)
 Richest 0.06 0.21 1.06 (0.7, 1.59) 0.04 0.16 1.04 (0.76, 1.44)
Child’s sex
 Male (ref)
 Female 0.01*** 0.10 1.01 (0.83, 1.23) −0.11* 0.07 0.9 (0.78, 1.03)
Age of Child
 06–12 months (ref)
 13–24 months 0.84*** 0.20 2.33 (1.56, 3.42) 1.12*** 0.12 3.02 (1.44, 3.83)
 25–36 months −0.21** 0.19 0.82 (0.57, 1.19) 0.06* 0.11 1.06 (0.86, 1.31)
 37–48 months −0.26** 0.17 0.77 (0.55, 1.08) −0.11** 0.10 0.91 (0.74, 1.11)
 49–59 months −0.25*** 0.16 0.77 (0.56, 1.06) −0.14** 0.09 0.87 (0.72, 1.04)
Number of children
 1 child (ref)
 2 child 0.02 0.12 1.02 (0.8, 1.3) −0.05 0.09 0.95 (0.8, 1.12)
 3 or more child −0.24* 0.26 0.78 (0.47, 1.31) −0.01* 0.16 0.99 (0.73, 1.35)
Mother’s age
 15–20 years (ref)
 21–25 years −0.06 0.16 0.94 (0.68, 1.29) 0.01 0.11 1.01 (0.82, 1.24)
 26–30 years 0.08* 0.17 1.05 (0.72, 1.39) 0.06 0.11 1.06 (0.85, 1.33)
 31–35 years −0.14* 0.19 0.87 (0.6, 1.25) 0.19* 0.13 1.21 (0.93, 1.57)
 35 or more years 0.03 0.24 1.03 (0.65, 1.63) 0.19 0.18 1.2 (0.84, 1.72)
Mother’s education
 No education (ref)
 Primary −0.07 0.22 0.93 (0.61, 1.42) 0.04 0.15 1.04 (0.78, 1.38)
 Secondary 0.16* 0.22 1.17 (0.76, 1.81) 0.22* 0.15 1.24 (0.92, 1.68)
 Higher 0.19* 0.27 1.21 (0.72, 2.04) 0.47** 0.20 1.60 (1.07, 2.38)
Father’s education
 No education (ref)
 Primary 0.14 0.17 1.15 (0.82, 1.62) 0.03 0.11 1.03 (0.84, 1.27)
 Secondary 0.17* 0.19 1.19 (0.83, 1.72) 0.03 0.12 1.03 (0.82, 1.31)
 Higher 0.22 0.23 1.24 (0.79, 1.94) 0.34** 0.17 1.41 (1.01, 1.96)
Breastfeeding status
 No (ref)
 Yes −0.19* 0.16 0.83 (0.6, 1.13) 0.03* 0.11 1.03 (0.84, 1.28)
  1. *p < 0.10; **p < 0.05; and ***p < 0.01