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Table 2 Percentage of ADL, IADL, and impairments and their adjusted odds ratio for older adults by background characteristics in India

From: Socio-economic inequality in functional disability and impairments with focus on instrumental activity of daily living: a study on older adults in India

Variable ADL IADL Impairments
% AOR (95% CI) % AOR (95% CI) % AOR (95% CI)
Age (years) *   *   *  
 60–69@ 3.4   47.4   65.6  
 70–79 9.6 2.33*(1.90,2.86) 66.5 1.85*(1.66,2.07) 81.0 1.86*(1.63,2.11)
 80+ 25.7 6.42*(5.10,8.08) 85.5 5.08*(4.16,6.21) 90.8 3.5*(2.73,4.48)
Sex *     *  
 Men@ 5.8   56.3   70.7  
 Women 9.0 1.02(0.83,1.27) 57.2 0.57*(0.51,0.65) 74.2 1.03(0.90,1.18)
Educational status *   *   *  
 None @ 9.2   69.7   75.4  
 Below 5 years 7.6 1.00(0.80,1.27) 51.2 0.57*(0.50,0.65) 77.0 1.06(0.92,1.24)
 6 to 10 years 4.5 0.98(0.74,1.29) 40.5 0.44*(0.38,0.5) 62.0 0.79*(0.68,0.92)
 11+ years 3.9 1.48(0.95,2.31) 26.3 0.21*(0.16,0.26) 72.5 1.18(0.93,1.5)
Marital status *   *   *  
 Not in union@ 10.9   63.0   77.4  
 Currently in union 5.3 1.01(0.81,1.24) 52.7 0.81*(0.72,0.91) 69.4 0.86*(0.75,0.98)
Living arrangement *   *   *  
 Alone@ 3.4   36.4   66.5  
 With spouse 3.6 1.50(0.87,2.57) 48.2 2.79*(2.17,3.59) 62.8 0.78(0.60,1.02)
 With children 8.4 2.40*(1.51,3.83) 60.0 4.13*(3.30,5.18) 74.4 0.91(0.72,1.16)
 Others 10.1 2.65*(1.57,4.46) 60.4 3.98*(3.04,5.2) 80.5 0.97(0.72,1.30)
Working status *   *   *  
 No@ 10.4   63.3   76.2  
 Yes 1.1 0.16*(0.10,0.26) 43.3 0.47*(0.41,0.53) 67.3 0.85*(0.74,0.97)
 Retired 2.6 0.41*(0.26,0.63) 43.4 0.81*(0.67,0.97) 58.9 0.83(0.68,1.01)
Having children *     *  
 Yes@ 7.7   57.0   72.7  
 No 3.8 0.83(0.50,1.37) 52.0 1.03(0.80,1.32) 69.8 0.86(0.66,1.12)
Self-rated health *   *   *  
 Good@ 2.6   47.5   59.4  
 Poor 11.4 2.95*(2.37,3.67) 64.3 1.74*(1.57,1.92) 83.2 2.36*(2.11,2.63)
Chronic diseases *   *   *  
 No@ 3.1   53.9   54.1  
 Yes 9.9 2.7*(2.13,3.43) 58.4 1.15*(1.04,1.27) 82.6 2.95*(2.65,3.3)
Substance use      *  
 No@ 7.6   56.2   67.9  
 Yes 7.3 0.92(0.76,1.12) 57.8 0.92(0.83,1.03) 81.2 1.65*(1.45,1.87)
Wealth quintile    *   *  
 Poorest@ 7.9   67.6   76.5  
 Poorer 7.4 0.96(0.73,1.26) 59.2 0.88(0.75,1.03) 70.6 0.9(0.76,1.08)
 Middle 8.2 0.87(0.65,1.17) 55.3 0.85(0.72,1.01) 70.0 0.86(0.71,1.04)
 Richer 6.7 0.67*(0.48,0.92) 51.4 0.74*(0.61,0.89) 69.1 0.98(0.80,1.21)
 Richest 7.1 0.72(0.51,1.03) 45.0 0.72*(0.58,0.88) 77.2 1.20(0.94,1.51)
Religion *   *   *  
 Hindu@ 7.3   57.4   71.6  
 Muslim 11.7 1.41*(1.03,1.94) 58.1 1.51*(1.23,1.84) 79.1 0.91(0.72,1.14)
 Sikh 6.1 1.24(0.79,1.93) 61.3 1.06(0.84,1.34) 71.1 0.78*(0.60,1.00)
 Others 6.4 0.85(0.54,1.35) 32.1 0.85(0.66,1.09) 83.8 1.25(0.93,1.69)
Caste *   *    
 Scheduled Caste 8.0 1.08(0.85,1.38) 62.9 1.06(0.93,1.22) 74.2 0.92(0.78,1.07)
 Scheduled Tribe 5.5 0.86(0.53,1.38) 63.4 0.95(0.75,1.2) 74.4 0.8(0.61,1.04)
 Other Backward Class 7.6 1.05(0.83,1.34) 53.4 1.06(0.93,1.21) 65.7 0.83*(0.72,0.96)
 Others@ 7.4   55.7   78.2  
Place of residence *   *   *  
 Rural@ 7.7   59.6   74.1  
 Urban 6.8 1.00(0.83,1.21) 48.7 0.85*(0.77,0.95) 68.1 1.06(0.94,1.19)
State *   *   *  
 Himachal Pradesh@ 7.8   60.2   67.9  
 Punjab 5.8 0.52*(0.35,0.79) 60.6 1.05(0.85,1.31) 73.3 1.02(0.81,1.28)
 West Bengal 11.2 1.19(0.86,1.64) 69.3 1.74*(1.44,2.11) 88.0 2.51*(1.98,3.17)
 Orissa 8.5 1.34(0.96,1.87) 71.1 2.21*(1.83,2.67) 82.9 2.62*(2.11,3.24)
 Maharashtra 3.9 0.49*(0.33,0.71) 49.3 0.77*(0.65,0.93) 72.9 1.14(0.94,1.38)
 Kerala 9.7 0.91(0.64,1.28) 34.5 0.35*(0.29,0.43) 82.2 1.38*(1.1,1.72)
 Tamil Nadu 6.0 1.31(0.91,1.89) 53.3 1.25*(1.02,1.52) 44.0 0.51*(0.42,0.63)
Total 7.5   56.8   72.6  
  1. *p < 0.05; @Reference category; ADL Activities of daily living, IADL Instrumental activities of daily living, AOR Adjusted odds ratio, CI confidence interval; The analysis was adjusted for all the socio-demographic and economic correlates