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Table 4 Comparison of the mean score of predisposing, enabling, and reinforcing factors before and 3 months after the intervention in two groups

From: Design, implementation, and evaluation of a PRECEDE-PROCEED model-based intervention for oral and dental health among primary school students of Rafsanjan city: a mixed method study

Factor Structure Group Before of intervention After of intervention P-Value*
M ± SD M ± SD
Predisposing Factors Knowledge (0–24) Intervention 10.48 ± 3.37 18.93 ± 2.77 < 0.001
Control 10.40 ± 2.98 11.66 ± 3.54 < 0.001
P-Value** 0.091 < 0.001  
Attitude (7–21) Intervention 18.70 ± 2.00 19.82 ± 1.99 < 0.001
Control 18.80 ± 2.01 19.01 ± 1.81 0.14
P-Value** 0.93 < 0.001  
Perceived Susceptibility (3–9) Intervention 7.41 ± 1.45 7.87 ± 1.40 < 0.001
Control 7.45 ± 1.49 7.81 ± 1.27 0.005
P-Value** 0.74 0.04  
Perceived Severity (10–30) Intervention 24.11 ± 3.89 28.36 ± 3.39 < 0.001
Control 23.00 ± 4.22 23.44 ± 4.05 0.30
P-Value** 0.05 < 0.001  
Perceived Benefit (11–33) Intervention 29.08 ± 3.35 31.95 ± 1.96 < 0.001
Control 29.51 ± 3.24 29.41 ± 3.21 0.51
P-Value** 0.26 < 0.001  
Subjective Norms (3–9) Intervention 8.26 ± 1.07 8.65 ± 0.83 < 0.001
Control 8.22 ± 1.19 8.19 ± 1.20 0.30
P-Value** 0.63 < 0.001  
Motivation to Comply (3–9) Intervention 7.71 ± 1.45 8.44 ± 1.13 < 0.001
Control 7.46 ± 1.53 7.29 ± 1.62 0.23
P-Value** 0.11 < 0.001  
Observational Learning (3–9) Intervention 7.13 ± 1.89 8.07 ± 1.63 < 0.001
Control 7.25 ± 1.57 6.72 ± 1.86 0.007
P-Value** 0.94 < 0.001  
Enabling Factors Perceived Barrier (6–18) Intervention 8.61 ± 2.29 7.45 ± 2.33 < 0.001
Control 8.20 ± 1.94 8.30 ± 2.82 0.81
P-Value** 0.25 < 0.001  
Self-Efficacy (5–15) Intervention 13.29 ± 2.29 14.36 ± 1.23 < 0.001
Control 13.18 ± 2.22 13.17 ± 2.09 0.74
P-Value** 0.49 < 0.001  
Perceived Behavioral Control (6–18) Intervention 14.14 ± 2.76 16.37 ± 2.16 < 0.001
Control 14.35 ± 2.83 14.42 ± 2.93 0.92
P-Value** 0.49 < 0.001  
Tooth Brushing Skill (0–12) Intervention 5.72 ± 2.27 10.72 ± 1.75 < 0.001
Control 6.44 ± 2.77 5.59 ± 2.15 0.01
P-Value** 0.01 < 0.001  
Ancova < 0.001  
Reinforcing Factors Social Support (4–12) Intervention 9.99 ± 2.12 11.00 ± 1.61 < 0.001
Control 9.54 ± 2.06 9.44 ± 2.35 0.72
P-Value** 0.02 < 0.001  
Ancova < 0.001  
Social Reinforcement (5–15) Intervention 12.15 ± 2.76 13.88 ± 1.85 < 0.001
Control 12.14 ± 2.47 11.75 ± 2.92 0.14
P-Value** 0.07 < 0.001  
Behavior Intention Behavior (0–4) Intervention 3.19 ± 1.27 3.73 ± 0.68 < 0.001
Control 3.74 ± 0.67 3.33 ± 1.10 0.62
P-Value** 0.02 < 0.001  
Ancova < 0.001  
  1. *Mann Whitney U test
  2. **Wilcoxon test