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Table 2 Crude and adjusted averages comparison of growth and breastfeeding duration variables, between different processed feeding severity scores of IVAPSA sample included on analysis, Porto Alegre, 2011–2016

From: Infant processed food consumption and their interaction to breastfeeding and growth in children up to six months old

Variables Gravity score of processed food (GSPF)
Null
(n = 28)
Mild
(n = 74)
Moderate
(n = 66)
Severe
(n = 68)
P
Growth variables (in z-scores)      
 Crude averagesI (mean (SD))
  WHZ −0.16a (1.15) 0.32ab (1.24) 0.63b (1.13) 0.18ab (1.46) 0.040
  BAZ −0.24c (1.18) 0.22cd (1.25) 0.54d (1.13) 0.08cd (1.46) 0.041
  WAZ −0.37 (0.83) 0.11 (1.05) 0.24 (1.12) 0.02 (1.34) 0.129
 Adjusted averagesIII (mean (SD))
  WHZ −0.28e [− 0.84; 0.27] 0.21ef [− 0.12; 0.54] 0.78f [0.42; 1.13] 0.21ef [− 0.16; 0.58] 0.011
  BAZ −0.29g [− 0.83; 0.25] 0.12gh [− 0.21; 0.46] 0.61h
[0.27; 0.96]
0.12gh [− 0.25; 0.49] 0.037
  WAZ − 0.40i [− 0.85; 0.06] 0.03ij [− 0.31; 0.25] 0.36j
[0.07; 0.64]
0.16ij [− 0.18; 0.43] 0.049
Breastfeeding variables (in days)      
 Crude averagesII (median [25; 75])
  EBF time 17.50kl [3.25; 149.75] 32.00k [5.00; 120.00] 6.00lm [1.00; 30.00] 2.00m [1.00; 19.25] < 0.001
  Non EBF time 180.00n [180.00; 180.00] 180.00n
[180.00; 180.00]
180.00o [60.00; 180.00] 180.00o [60.00; 180.00] < 0.001
 Adjusted averagesIV (mean (SD))
  EBF timeV 19.20pq [9.50; 39.10] 23.80p [15.60; 36.30] 7.23qr [4.68; 11.15] 3.27r [2.07; 5.16] < 0.001
  Non EBF timeV 175.40s [120.70; 254.40] 162.60s [129.10; 205.00] 91.60t [72.60; 115.40] 86.70t [67.30; 111.60] < 0.001
  1. Subtitle: I ANOVA one-way test, with Tukey Post Hoc test
  2. II Kruskal-Wallis test, with Dunn Post Hoc test
  3. III ANCOVA test, with Bonferroni Post Hoc test. Adjusted by total family income, maternal age, maternal pre-gestational BMI and baseline score of growth
  4. IV ANCOVA test, with Bonferroni Post Hoc test. Adjusted by total family income, maternal age and maternal pre-gestational BMI
  5. V Geometric means
  6. Different letters represent categories with statistically different means
  7. Breastfeeding duration variables were reported in days