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Table 1 Characteristics of sample married women in the Ethiopia 2016 Demographic and Health Survey (EDHS) sample

From: Decision-making autonomy of women and other factors of anemia among married women in Ethiopia: a multilevel analysis of a countrywide survey

  Frequency %
outcome variable (Anemia)
 None anemic 6412 69.5
 Anemic 2808 30.5
Individual-level Characteristics(n = 9220)
Women’s autonomy
  Low 7196 61.0
  High 3597 39.0
 Socio demographic and economic characteristics
  Women’s Age
   15–24 2294 24.9
   25–34 3852 41.9
   35–49 3074 33.3
  Women’s age at first Marriage
    < 16 3519 38.2
   16–20 4194 45.5
    > 20 1507 16.3
  Religion
   Orthodox 3337 36.2
   Protestant 1706 18.5
   Muslim 3998 43.4
   Others 179 1.9
  Women’s education level
   No Education 5387 58.4
   Primary 2553 27.7
   Secondary 805 8.7
   Higher 475 5.1
  Education level of husband or partner
   No education 4192 45.5
   Primary 2905 31.5
   Secondary 1126 12.2
   Higher 911 9.9
  Women’s employment
   No 6267 67.9
   Yes 2953 23.1
  Currently pregnant
   No 8199 88.3
   Yes 1021 11.1
  Currently breastfeeding
   No 5379 58.3
   Yes 3841 41.7
  Currently amenorrheic
   No 6753 73.2
   Yes 2467 26.8
  Number of children ever born
   0 889 9.6
   1–2 2749 29.8
   3–4 2205 23.9
   5+ 337 36.6
  Current use of contraceptive
   No 6402 69.4
   Yes 2818 30.6
  Women ever chewed Chat
   No 8174 88.7
   Yes 1046 11.3
  Wealth Index
   Poor 4198 45.5
   Non-Poor 5022 54.5
  History of terminated pregnancy
   No 8233 89.3
   Yes 987 10.7
  Women’s BMI
    < 18.5(underweight) 2078 22.5
   18.5–24.9(normal weight) 6010 65.2
    ≥ 25(overweight) 1132 12.3
Health care access
  Covered by health insurance
   No 8841 95.9
   Yes 379 4.1
  Visiting health facility in the last 12 months
   No 4558 49.4
   Yes 4662 50.6
 Community-level characteristics
  Place of residence
   Urban 2229 24.2
   Rural 6991 75.8
  % of women with high decision-making autonomy
   Low 226 35.0
   Medium 152 23.5
   High 267 41.4
  % of women with non-poor wealth index
   Low 196 30.4
   Medium 184 28.5
   High 265 41.1
  % women with higher education
   Low 228 35.3
   Medium 255 39.5
   High 162 25.1
  % women who chewed chat
   Low 315 48.8
   Medium 173 26.8
   High 157 24.3