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Table 2 Mean difference in composite cognitive score for exposure to region-specific extreme cold (1st percentile), cold (10th percentile), hot (90th percentile), and extreme hot (99th percentile) temperatures

From: Association between temperature exposure and cognition: a cross-sectional analysis of 20,687 aging adults in the United States

  Dry Continental Tropics Mediterranean/oceanic
1st percentile (Extreme cold)a MD 95% CI MD 95% CI MD 95% CI MD 95% CI
 Day of testing −0.63 −1.30, 0.03 − 0.01 − 0.20, 0.18 −0.04 − 0.13, 0.05 0.00 − 0.33, 0.35
 Lag day 0–1 − 0.76 −1.45, − 0.07 −0.01 − 0.21, 0.19 −0.03 − 0.13, 0.07 −0.08 − 0.44, 0.28
 Lag day 0–2 − 0.38 −0.76, − 0.01 −0.01 − 0.12, 0.11 0.01 − 0.07, 0.09 −0.25 − 0.47, − 0.04
10th percentile (cold)b
 Day of testing −0.41 − 0.75, − 0.08 −0.03 − 0.15, 0.10 −0.02 − 0.07, 0.04 0.04 − 0.12, 0.20
 Lag day 0–1 − 0.46 −0.80, − 0.11 −0.03 − 0.16, 0.09 −0.02 − 0.07, 0.04 0.02 − 0.15, 0.18
 Lag day 0–2 − 0.13 −0.27, 0.01 − 0.01 −0.07, 0.06 0.00 −0.05, 0.05 − 0.07 −0.16, 0.02
90th percentile (Hot)c
 Day of testing 0.23 −0.03, 0.49 0.02 −0.03, 0.10 −0.01 − 0.06, 0.05 −0.04 − 0.12, 0.05
 Lag day 0–1 0.22 −0.05, 0.49 0.02 −0.04, 0.11 − 0.01 −0.06, 0.05 − 0.05 −0.14, 0.04
 Lag day 0–2 −0.02 − 0.14, 0.09 0.00 − 0.05, 0.05 0.00 − 0.04, 0.04 −0.03 − 0.09, 0.02
99th percentile (Extreme hot)d
 Day of testing 0.44 −0.09, 0.97 0.04 −0.03, 0.13 −0.01 − 0.08, 0.06 −0.08 − 0.27, 0.10
 Lag day 0–1 0.42 −0.14, 0.97 0.05 −0.04, 0.14 − 0.01 −0.09, 0.07 − 0.11 −0.31, 0.09
 Lag day 0–2 −0.07 − 0.31, 0.17 0.00 − 0.05, 0.07 0.00 − 0.05, 0.06 −0.09 − 0.21, 0.04
  1. Abbreviations: CI confidence interval, MD mean difference
  2. Lag day 0–1 represents the cumulative effect of temperature on day of testing plus the effect of temperature from 1 day prior. Lag 0–2 is the cumulative effect of temperature on the day of testing plus 1 and 2 days prior. These can also be interpreted as the effect of a single day of temperature on cognition in the following 0–1 days or the following 0–2 days
  3. Reference value was 20 °C
  4. a 1st percentile values were − 8 °C, − 14 °C, 0 °C and − 2 °C for dry, continental, Mediterranean/oceanic and tropics, respectively.
  5. b 10th percentile values were 4 °C, − 4 °C, 8 °C and 5 °C for dry, continental, Mediterranean/oceanic and tropics, respectively.
  6. c 90th percentile values were 27 °C, 24 °C, 24 °C and 28 °C for dry, continental, Mediterranean/oceanic and tropics, respectively.
  7. d 99th percentile values were 33 °C, 29 °C, 28 °C and 31 °C for dry, continental, Mediterranean/oceanic and tropics, respectively.
  8. Models adjusted for age at time of cognitive assessment, year of test, season, education status at baseline, sex and race
  9. Bolded estimates represent statistically significant findings at the p < 0.05 level