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Table 3 Estimates from linear regression models of the probability of being hypertensive among women aged 25-49, India NFHS 2015-16

From: Hypertension in women: the role of adolescent childbearing

  All ages 25 to 29 30 to 34 35 to 39 40 to 44 45 to 49
Adolescent childbirth 0.023*** 0.008*** 0.024*** 0.023*** 0.024*** 0.032***
  (0.020, 0.027) (0.002, 0.013) (0.017, 0.031) (0.015, 0.031) (0.015, 0.034) (0.022, 0.043)
Nutritional statusa       
Underweight (BMI <18.5) -0.033*** -0.014*** -0.020*** -0.041*** -0.059*** -0.066***
  (-0.036, -0.029) (-0.019, -0.009) (-0.027, -0.014) (-0.049, -0.033) (-0.068, -0.049) (-0.077, -0.054)
Overweight (BMI 25.0-29.9) 0.088*** 0.046*** 0.068*** 0.088*** 0.118*** 0.127***
  (0.084, 0.093) (0.038, 0.054) (0.059, 0.077) (0.078, 0.098) (0.106, 0.130) (0.114, 0.139)
Obese (BMI ≥30.0) 0.178*** 0.089*** 0.142*** 0.183*** 0.214*** 0.234***
  (0.169, 0.187) (0.072, 0.106) (0.123, 0.160) (0.164, 0.201) (0.194, 0.234) (0.214, 0.254)
Wealth index quintileb       
Quintile 2 (Poorer) -0.006*** -0.007* -0.008* -0.004 -0.004 -0.002
  (-0.011, -0.002) (-0.014, 0.000) (-0.016, 0.001) (-0.014, 0.007) (-0.017, 0.008) (-0.016, 0.012)
Quintile 3 (Middle) -0.006** -0.011*** -0.007 0.001 -0.002 0.004
  (-0.011, -0.000) (-0.019, -0.004) (-0.017, 0.003) (-0.011, 0.012) (-0.015, 0.012) (-0.011, 0.020)
Quintile 4 (Richer) 0.005* -0.008* 0.005 0.013* 0.012 0.018*
  (-0.001, 0.011) (-0.017, 0.000) (-0.006, 0.016) (-0.001, 0.027) (-0.004, 0.028) (-0.000, 0.036)
Quintile 5 (Richest) -0.005 -0.010* -0.005 0.003 -0.01 -0.002
  (-0.012, 0.003) (-0.021, 0.000) (-0.018, 0.009) (-0.014, 0.019) (-0.029, 0.009) (-0.023, 0.019)
Educationc       
Primary 0.006** 0.001 0.003 -0.007 0.006 0.012
  (0.001, 0.011) (-0.006, 0.009) (-0.006, 0.013) (-0.018, 0.004) (-0.008, 0.019) (-0.004, 0.027)
Secondary -0.002 -0.007** -0.005 -0.010** 0.001 0.018**
  (-0.006, 0.003) (-0.013, -0.001) (-0.014, 0.003) (-0.020, -0.000) (-0.012, 0.014) (0.003, 0.033)
Higher -0.020*** -0.015*** -0.024*** -0.036*** -0.018 -0.012
  (-0.028, -0.013) (-0.025, -0.005) (-0.038, -0.010) (-0.054, -0.018) (-0.041, 0.004) (-0.043, 0.020)
Marital statusd       
Married 0.012** 0.004 0.002 0.026 0.031 0.026
  (0.002, 0.023) (-0.008, 0.016) (-0.024, 0.027) (-0.011, 0.063) (-0.019, 0.081) (-0.034, 0.085)
Widowed, divorced, separated 0.011* -0.008 0.013 0.024 0.029 0.025
  (-0.001, 0.024) (-0.025, 0.010) (-0.016, 0.041) (-0.016, 0.064) (-0.022, 0.081) (-0.035, 0.086)
Religione       
Muslim 0.024*** 0.012*** 0.016*** 0.032*** 0.039*** 0.033***
  (0.018, 0.030) (0.004, 0.019) (0.006, 0.026) (0.019, 0.045) (0.023, 0.055) (0.015, 0.051)
Christian 0.017*** 0.005 0.025* -0.001 0.028 0.031*
  (0.004, 0.030) (-0.014, 0.025) (-0.004, 0.054) (-0.025, 0.023) (-0.009, 0.065) (-0.004, 0.066)
Sikh 0.017** 0.020* 0.011 0.015 0.023 0.014
  (0.003, 0.030) (-0.001, 0.040) (-0.015, 0.038) (-0.013, 0.044) (-0.014, 0.059) (-0.023, 0.051)
Buddhist 0.002 -0.015 0.015 0.033 -0.004 -0.02
  (-0.022, 0.025) (-0.036, 0.007) (-0.024, 0.054) (-0.035, 0.102) (-0.062, 0.054) (-0.090, 0.051)
Other 0.023** 0.004 0.069** -0.02 0.045 0.02
  (0.000, 0.045) (-0.019, 0.028) (0.007, 0.130) (-0.056, 0.016) (-0.028, 0.118) (-0.040, 0.079)
Castef       
Scheduled caste 0.001 0.002 -0.008 0.005 0.005 0.008
  (-0.004, 0.007) (-0.005, 0.010) (-0.018, 0.002) (-0.007, 0.018) (-0.010, 0.020) (-0.008, 0.023)
Scheduled tribe 0.014*** 0.006 0.007 0.01 0.016* 0.042***
  (0.008, 0.021) (-0.003, 0.016) (-0.004, 0.019) (-0.005, 0.024) (-0.002, 0.034) (0.023, 0.062)
Other backward class -0.001 0 -0.002 -0.002 -0.002 0
  (-0.006, 0.003) (-0.006, 0.007) (-0.010, 0.006) (-0.012, 0.009) (-0.015, 0.010) (-0.013, 0.014)
Urban -0.003 -0.004 -0.007* -0.007 -0.002 0.004
  (-0.008, 0.002) (-0.010, 0.002) (-0.015, 0.000) (-0.016, 0.003) (-0.014, 0.010) (-0.009, 0.017)
Lifetime parityg       
1-2 -0.030*** -0.015*** -0.019** -0.055*** -0.045*** -0.071***
  (-0.038, -0.023) (-0.024, -0.006) (-0.035, -0.003) (-0.079, -0.032) (-0.074, -0.017) (-0.102, -0.040)
3-4 -0.036*** -0.014*** -0.029*** -0.058*** -0.064*** -0.078***
  (-0.045, -0.028) (-0.024, -0.004) (-0.046, -0.012) (-0.081, -0.034) (-0.092, -0.035) (-0.109, -0.047)
5+ -0.048*** -0.014* -0.032*** -0.062*** -0.063*** -0.087***
  (-0.057, -0.039) (-0.031, 0.002) (-0.052, -0.013) (-0.087, -0.037) (-0.093, -0.033) (-0.119, -0.055)
Tobacco/alcohol use 0.002 0.014*** 0.010* 0.003 -0.005 -0.001
  (-0.003, 0.007) (0.004, 0.025) (-0.000, 0.021) (-0.008, 0.015) (-0.017, 0.008) (-0.014, 0.012)
Menopause 0.043*** - 0.068*** 0.047*** 0.054*** 0.037***
  (0.034, 0.052)   (0.025, 0.112) (0.021, 0.073) (0.036, 0.072) (0.025, 0.049)
Oral contraceptive use 0.016*** 0.014** 0.020** 0.030*** 0.030* 0.01
  (0.007, 0.026) (0.001, 0.026) (0.004, 0.036) (0.009, 0.051) (-0.004, 0.064) (-0.040, 0.061)
Currently pregnant -0.037*** -0.030*** -0.047*** -0.077*** -0.043 -0.066
  (-0.043, -0.031) (-0.037, -0.023) (-0.059, -0.034) (-0.097, -0.056) (-0.118, 0.031) (-0.189, 0.057)
Observations 442,845 112,813 95,073 88,668 75,091 71,200
Age-group Fixed Effect Yes - - - - -
State Fixed Effect Yes Yes Yes Yes Yes Yes
  1. p<0.01,p<0.05,p<0.1. 95% confidence intervals are in parenthesis.
  2. Estimates represent the added probability of being hypertensive. Estimates were obtained using linear probability models (LPM) with complex survey weights.
  3. aRelative to normal (BMI 18.5 – 24.9).
  4. bRelative to Quintile 1 (Poorest).
  5. cRelative to no education.
  6. dRelative to never married.
  7. eRelative to Hindu.
  8. fRelative to not designated socially backward class.
  9. gRelative to no childbirth