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Table 6 Hazard ratios of the risk of infant, child and under-five mortality in the association with relevant child-specific, mother-specific and socio-economic covariates across EAG and non-EAG regions of India using random-intercept Weibull survival regression models respectively

From: Differential in infant, childhood and under-five death clustering among the empowered and non-empowered action group regions in India

Characteristics Infant mortality (0–11 months) Child mortality (12–59 months) Under-5 mortality (0–59 months)
Non-EAG Region EAG Region Non-EAG Region EAG Region Non-EAG Region EAG Region
HR 95% CI HR 95% CI HR 95% CI HR 95% CI HR 95% CI HR 95% CI
Survival status of previous sibling at the time of conception of index child   
Alive®
 Dead 1.67* (1.55–1.80) 1.38* (1.32–1.44) 1.26* (1.10–1.43) 0.83* (0.77–0.90) 1.46* (1.37–1.56) 1.24* (1.20–1.29)
 Has no preceding sibling       
Birth interval preceding to index child (in months)
 28 and more months®             
 19–27 months 1.43* (1.36–1.50) 1.71* (1.65–1.76) 1.40* (1.28–1.52) 1.73* (1.64–1.82) 1.44* (1.38–1.50) 1.74* (1.69–1.78)
 Less than 19 months 2.71* (2.58–2.84) 3.15* (3.05–3.26) 1.86* (1.70–2.05) 2.43* (2.29–2.58) 2.55* (2.44–2.66) 3.05* (2.97–3.14)
 Has no preceding sibling       
Birth order of index child
 1–2®             
 3 1.11* (1.06–1.16) 1.04* (1.00–1.07) 1.20* (1.10–1.31) 1.17* (1.11–1.24) 1.12* (1.07–1.17) 1.07* (1.04–1.10)
 4 1.19* (1.12–1.26) 1.09* (1.05–1.14) 1.50* (1.34–1.68) 1.25* (1.17–1.34) 1.22* (1.16–1.29) 1.12* (1.08–1.16)
 5 and more 1.30* (1.22–1.40) 1.12* (1.08–1.18) 1.93* (1.71–2.18) 1.27* (1.18–1.37) 1.35* (1.27–1.44) 1.13* (1.09–1.17)
Birth cohort of index child
 2010–2016®             
 2005–2009 0.92* (0.88–0.97) 1.01 (0.98–1.05) 1.25* (1.11–1.40) 1.53* (1.42–1.64) 0.83* (0.80–0.87) 0.94* (0.91–0.96)
 2000–2004 0.94* (0.89–0.98) 1.05* (1.02–1.09) 1.51* (1.35–1.68) 1.78* (1.65–1.92) 0.88* (0.84–0.91) 1.00 (0.97–1.03)
 1995–1999 0.98 (0.93–1.03) 1.21* (1.17–1.25) 1.73* (1.54–1.94) 2.36* (2.19–2.54) 0.93* (0.89–0.98) 1.19* (1.15–1.22)
 1990–1994 1.13* (1.07–1.19) 1.41* (1.36–1.46) 2.06* (1.82–2.33) 3.14* (2.90–3.41) 1.08* (1.03–1.14) 1.43* (1.38–1.48)
 1970–1989 1.37* (1.28–1.46) 1.72* (1.64–1.80) 3.03* (2.64–3.48) 4.13* (3.76–4.53) 1.37* (1.29–1.45) 1.77* (1.70–1.85)
Gender of child
 Male®             
 Female 0.82* (0.79–0.84) 0.87* (0.85–0.89) 1.07* (1.01–1.13) 1.44* (1.38–1.49) 0.86* (0.84–0.88) 0.97* (0.95–0.99)
Mother’s age during birth of index child (in years)
 20–24®             
 Less than 20 1.32* (1.27–1.37) 1.37* (1.34–1.41) 1.25* (1.16–1.36) 1.19* (1.13–1.26) 1.30* (1.26–1.35) 1.34* (1.31–1.37)
 25–29 0.98 (0.94–1.02) 0.97 (0.95–1.00) 0.93 (0.85–1.01) 0.98 (0.93–1.04) 0.97 (0.94–1.01) 0.98 (0.95–1.00)
 30 and more 1.20* (1.13–1.27) 1.09* (1.05–1.14) 0.89 (0.79–1.01) 1.06 (0.98–1.15) 1.14* (1.08–1.20) 1.09* (1.05–1.13)
Mother’s anaemia status
 Not anaemic®             
 Moderately anaemic 1.07* (1.03–1.11) 1.00 (0.98–1.03) 1.05 (0.98–1.12) 1.07* (1.02–1.12) 1.07* (1.04–1.10) 1.02 (1.00–1.04)
 Severely anaemic 1.20* (1.15–1.26) 1.20* (1.17–1.24) 1.15* (1.05–1.26) 1.11* (1.04–1.18) 1.20* (1.15–1.25) 1.19* (1.16–1.23)
Mother’s level of education
 Secondary or Higher®             
 Upto Primary 1.24* (1.18–1.29) 1.20* (1.15–1.24) 1.38* (1.25–1.51) 1.37* (1.26–1.49) 1.25* (1.20–1.31) 1.20* (1.16–1.24)
 No formal schooling 1.26* (1.21–1.31) 1.23* (1.20–1.27) 1.50* (1.38–1.63) 1.72* (1.61–1.85) 1.30* (1.25–1.35) 1.29* (1.25–1.33)
Caste of the household
 Scheduled Tribes®             
 Scheduled Castes 1.08* (1.02–1.14) 1.19* (1.15–1.23) 0.80* (0.73–0.89) 0.98 (0.92–1.04) 1.01 (0.97–1.06) 1.14* (1.10–1.18)
 Other Backward Classes 1.06* (1.00–1.11) 1.10* (1.06–1.14) 0.79* (0.71–0.87) 0.80* (0.75–0.85) 0.99 (0.95–1.04) 1.02 (0.99–1.05)
 Others 1.07* (1.02–1.13) 1.07* (1.03–1.12) 0.73* (0.66–0.81) 0.76* (0.71–0.83) 0.99 (0.95–1.04) 0.99 (0.96–1.03)
Religion of the household
 Hinduism®             
 Islam 1.03 (0.99–1.08) 0.93* (0.90–0.96) 1.07 (0.97–1.18) 1.06 (0.99–1.13) 1.04 (1.00–1.09) 0.96* (0.93–0.99)
 Others 0.87* (0.83–0.92) 0.87* (0.80–0.94) 1.17* (1.07–1.27) 1.03 (0.90–1.19) 0.92* (0.88–0.96) 0.89* (0.83–0.96)
Place of residence
 Urban®             
 Rural 1.10* (1.06–1.15) 0.97 (0.94–1.00) 1.04 (0.96–1.13) 0.94 (0.89–1.01) 1.10* (1.06–1.14) 0.97* (0.94–1.00)
Household Wealth Quintile
 Richest®             
 Richer 1.16* (1.09–1.22) 1.32* (1.25–1.39) 1.18* (1.04–1.34) 1.55* (1.37–1.74) 1.16* (1.10–1.22) 1.36* (1.29–1.42)
 Middle 1.33* (1.26–1.41) 1.50* (1.42–1.58) 1.45* (1.28–1.64) 1.88* (1.67–2.11) 1.36* (1.29–1.43) 1.56* (1.49–1.64)
 Poorer 1.56* (1.47–1.65) 1.71* (1.62–1.80) 1.99* (1.75–2.27) 2.32* (2.07–2.60) 1.64* (1.56–1.74) 1.82* (1.73–1.90)
 Poorest 1.73* (1.61–1.85) 1.95* (1.85–2.05) 2.54* (2.21–2.93) 3.13* (2.79–3.51) 1.89* (1.77–2.01) 2.16* (2.06–2.26)
Number of mothers 237,069 238,388 237,069 238,388 237,069 238,388
Number of births 580,737 717,280 580,737 717,280 580,737 717,280
  1. Note – (1) HR Hazard Ratio; 95% CI 95% Confidence Intervals. (2) Statistical significance is denoted by asterisks where * denotes p-value < 0.05. (3)® denotes the reference category