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Table 2 Primary and secondary outcomes pre- and post- intervention by intervention group

From: Promoting proactive bystander responses to racism and racial discrimination in primary schools: a mixed methods evaluation of the ‘Speak Out Against Racism’ program pilot

Outcomea Comparison Intervention B coefficient (95% CI) for interaction between intervention and time P value
Pre (n = 252)
mean (SD)
Post (n = 252)
mean (SD)
Pre (n = 393) mean (SD) Post (n = 393)
mean (SD)
Primary outcomes
 Bystander responses
  Assistant (2–10) 2.3 (1.2) 2.3 (0.8) 2.5 (1.4) 2.4 (1.1) − 0.04 (− 0.34, 0.26) 0.8
  Defender (7–35) 24.6 (8.1) 23.6 (8.3) 26.4 (7.2) 26.1 (7.4) 0.41 (−1.12, 1.94) 0.6
  Outsider (2–10) 4.2 (2.0) 4.3 (1.9) 4.0 (2.1) 4.2 (2.0) 0.09 (− 0.35, 0.53) 0.69
 Prosocial norms and self-efficacy
  Prosocial norms (2–20) 17.6 (4.4) 17.1 (4.3) 18.3 (4.4) 17.9 (4.4) 0.3 (−0.53, 1.14) 0.47
  Self-efficacy to intervene (4–20) 15.9 (3.3) 15.6 (3.5) 16.5 (2.9) 16.5 (3.3) 0.31 (− 0.34, 0.96) 0.35
  School inter-ethnic climate
  Peer inter-ethnic climate (4–20) 15.8 (2.9) 15.9 (2.9) 15.6 (2.8) 15.8 (2.7) 0.27 (−0.3, 0.83) 0.35
  Teacher inter-ethnic climate (3–15) 11.5 (2.2) 11.5 (2.4) 11.9 (2.2) 12.4 (2.4) 0.5 (0.02, 0.98) 0.04
Secondary outcomes
 Socioemotional adjustment
  SDQ: total (0–40) 15.0 (4.3) 13.1 (5.1) 15.4 (4.7) 14.1 (5.2) 0.34 (− 0.49, 1.17) 0.42
  SDQ: prosocial (0–10) 8.2 (1.7) 8.1 (1.6) 8.0 (1.7) 8.2 (1.7) 0.3 (0, 0.6) 0.05
 School connectedness
  Teacher empathy (0–8) 7.2 (1.4) 7.0 (1.7) 7.4 (1.2) 7.2 (1.5) −0.01 (− 0.3, 0.28) 0.96
  Loneliness at school (5–25) 9.1 (3.7) 8.4 (3.4) 9.3 (3.4) 8.9 (3.4) 0.29 (− 0.32, 0.9) 0.36
  Inter-ethnic contact at school (5–25) 19.5 (3.5) 20.2 (3.4) 19.6 (3.6) 20.6 (3.5) 0.29 (− 0.35, 0.93) 0.37
 Sleep
  Sleep duration 574.9 (64.8) 577.5 (64.4) 580.0 (84.1) 580.6 (62.6) 11.93 (−5.75, 29.62) 0.19
 Sleep latency
  0–30 min 110 (55.8%) 122 (64.6%) 212 (65.2%) 211 (68.5%) 0.23 (−0.46, 0.91) 0.52
30–60 min 58 (29.4%) 41 (21.7%) 71 (21.8%) 57 (18.5%)
   > 60 min 29 (14.7%) 26 (13.8%) 42 (12.9%) 40 (13.0%)
 Sleep difficulties
  Mild (a little of the time/none of the time) 31 (15.5%) 25 (13.2%) 67 (20.6%) 43 (13.8%) −0.05 (− 0.64, 0.54) 0.87
  Moderate (a good bit of the time/some of the time) 60 (30.0%) 41 (21.7%) 82 (25.2%) 76 (24.4%)
  Sleep problem (all of the time/most of the time) 109 (54.5%) 123 (65.1%) 177 (54.3%) 193 (61.9%)
 Racial discrimination
  Direct (0–48) 1.5 (4.1) 1.2 (3.1) 1.8 (4.8) 1.4 (4.0) −0.05 (−0.89, 0.79) 0.9
  Vicarious (0–20) 4.3 (4.2) 3.9 (3.6) 3.6 (4.0) 3.1 (3.9) −0.22 (− 0.91, 0.46) 0.52
  1. – = not applicable; CI confidence interval; NSW New South Wales; SD standard deviation; SDQ Strengths and Difficulties Questionnaire; Vic Victoria
  2. aPossible score ranges for each scale denoted in brackets