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Table 1 Scoring scale given by ISMP, Canada for severity, frequency and detectability of failure modes (Source – FMEA framework, ISMP, Canada [13])

From: Application of failure mode and effects analysis (FMEA) to improve medication safety in the dispensing process – a study at a teaching hospital, Sri Lanka

  Definition Score
Severity (S) No effect (Failure is not noticeable and does not affect the patient or process) 1
Slight effect (Failure causes minor effects or is a trouble to the patient or process, without injury or increase in level of care required) 2
Moderate effect (Failure causes some performance loss and may increase the level of care (e.g., requiring hospitalisation or increasing the length of hospital stay) 3
Major effect (Failure causes a high degree of performance loss, with permanent impact on the patient) 4
Severe or catastrophic effect (Failure causes death or major, permanent loss of function) 5
Frequency (F) Yearly 1
Monthly 2
Weekly 3
Daily 4
Hourly 5
Detectability* (D) Always 1
Likely 2
Unlikely 3
Never 4
  1. *Detectability was defined as ‘Detectability of the error before it reaches to the patient’