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Table 1 The results of bivariate analysis between the type of place of residence (urban-rural) and other variables of respondents in the Philippines (n = 7992) and Indonesia (n = 14,568) in 2017

From: Urban-rural disparities of antenatal care in South East Asia: a case study in the Philippines and Indonesia

Variables Philippine
(n = 7992)
Indonesia
(n = 14,568)
Urban
(2602)
Rural
(5390)
p Urban
(7322)
Rural
(7246)
p
ANC    ***0.000    ***0.000
• < 4 11.3% 15.0%   3.9% 7.3%  
• ≥ 4 88.7% 85.0%   96.1% 92.7%  
Age group    ***0.000    ***0.000
• 15–19 3.9% 4.9%   1.9% 2.9%  
• 20–24 19.9% 21.1%   13.9% 19.2%  
• 25–29 27.8% 25.2%   25.0% 25.6%  
• 30–34 22.4% 20.8%   26.8% 24.6%  
• 35–39 15.4% 17.4%   21.8% 18.4%  
• 40–44 8.6% 8.3%   8.8% 7.5%  
• 45–49 1.9% 2.2%   1.7% 1.8%  
Have a husband/partner    ***0.000    ***0.000
• No 10.2% 6.5%   2.9% 2.8%  
• Yes 89.8% 93.5%   97.1% 97.2%  
Education Level    ***0.000    ***0.000
• No education 0.4% 1.4%   0.4% 1.0%  
• Primary 11.4% 20.2%   17.5% 32.5%  
• Secondary 52.6% 50.6%   62.6% 55.8%  
• Higher 35.6% 27.9%   19.6% 10.8%  
Parity    ***0.000    ***0.000
• Primiparous 31.7% 27.0%   33.7% 34.0%  
• Multiparous 57.8% 55.1%   62.6% 60.3%  
• Grand multiparous 10.5% 17.9%   3.7% 5.7%  
Wealth status    ***0.000    ***0.000
• Poorest 12.3% 35.5%   6.6% 29.9%  
• Poorer 16.7% 26.1%   13.4% 26.7%  
• Middle 25.3% 16.4%   21.1% 20.8%  
• Richer 24.1% 12.6%   27.3% 14.9%  
• Richest 21.6% 9.3%   31.6% 7.8%  
  1. p < 0.05; p < 0.01; p < 0.001