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Table 1 Fixed-effect negative binomial models for association between malaria incidence and Bolsa Família coverage, Brazil 2004–2015

From: The association between a conditional cash transfer programme and malaria incidence: a longitudinal ecological study in the Brazilian Amazon between 2004 and 2015

  Malaria Incidence Risk Ratio (95% CI)
Covariates used for model selection
Crude Adjusted
Municipal human development index 0.000 (0.0001–0.0002)
Hospital beds density 0.958 (0.9292–0.9888)
Ratio of average income of the richest 20% to the poorest 40% 1.000 (1.0004–1.0010)
Ratio between population living in rural and urban areas 1.147 (1.1329–1.1612)
Proportion of indigenous population 1.034 (1.0318–1.0375)
Proportion of persons employed in the mineral extraction sector aged 18 years or over 1.03 (1.0141–1.0458)
  BFP models
BFP municipal coverage (%, 0–100) 0.987 (0.9852–0.9885) 0.997 (0.9948–0.9988)
Logarithm of gross domestic product (BRZ, prices 2015)a 0.479 (0.4653–0.495) 0.628 (0.6019–0.6556)
Proportion of young adult menb 0.892 (0.8830–0.902) 1.057 (1.0476–1.0673)
Proportion of beneficiaries of health insurance plans (%, 0–100) 0.903 (0.8957–0.9098) 1.01 (1.0026–1.0175)
Population density (number of people/km 2) 0.997 (0.9966–0.9973) 0.9989 (0.9986–0.9992)
Annual increase in deforestation (Km2) 1.002 (1.0022–1.0026) 1.000 (1.0001–1.0007)
FHP municipal coverage (%, 0–100) 1.012 (1.011–1.0141) 0.9976 (0.9961–0.9992)
Unemployment rate among people aged 18 and over (%) 1.02 (1.0318–1.0482) 0.9755 (0.9661–0.9851)
GINI index (0–100) 1.048 (1.0426–1.0531) 1.0280 (1.0220–1.0340)
Year 0.85 (0.8409–0.8595)
Number of observations 8544 7729
Number of municipalities 712 670
  1. aThe Log of gross domestic product was used in the model building strategy
  2. b Adults between 20 and 49 years old