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Table 1 Demographic, socioeconomic and health-related characteristics of the study population stratified by residence status

From: Self-rated health among undocumented and newly regularized migrants in Geneva: a cross-sectional study

  Total Undocumented Newly regularized or eligible for regularization p-value* Cramer’s V / Cliff’s Delta
  N = 437 N = 235 N = 202   
  n(%) or
median (IQR)
n(%) or
median (IQR)
n(%) or
median (IQR)
  
Self-rated health <.001 0.16
 Very good to excellent 158 (36.2) 68 (28.9) 90 (44.6)   
 Poor to good 279 (63.8) 167 (71.1) 112 (55.4)   
Sex .358  
 Female 313 (71.6) 164 (69.8) 149 (73.8)   
 Male 124 (28.4) 71 (30.2) 53 (26.2)   
 Age (years) 43 (15) 42 (14.5) 44 (16) .006 −0.15**
Origin .128  
 Latin America 278 (63.6) 144 (61.3) 134 (66.3)   
 Africa 31 (7.1) 21 (8.9) 10 (5.0)   
 East Asia 89 (20.4) 53 (22.6) 36 (17.8)   
 Eastern Europe 39 (8.9) 17 (7.2) 22 (10.9)   
Recruitment setting <.001 0.36
 In the Community 352 (80.5%) 158 (67.2) 194 (96)   
 In Healthcare 85 (19.5%) 77 (32.8) 8 (4)   
Level of education .462  
 Primary or secondary 337 (77.1) 178 (75.7) 159 (78.7)   
 University/higher education 100 (22.9) 57 (24.3) 43 (21.3)   
Racial discrimination .005 0.13
 No 295 (67.5) 145 (61.7) 150 (74.3)   
 Yes 142 (32.5) 90 (38.3) 52 (25.7)   
Size of social network .005 0.13
 0–2 226 (51.7) 136 (57.9) 90 (44.6)   
 3+ 211 (48.3) 99 (42.1) 112 (55.4)   
Social isolation <.001 0.25
 Rather/very connected 313 (71.6) 144 (61.3) 169 (83.7)   
 Rather/very lonely 124 (28.4) 91 (38.7) 33 (16.3)   
 Duration in Geneva (years) 12 (7) 10 (7) 13 (5) <.001 −0.45**
Language proficiency .021 0.11
 Excellent/very good 182 (41.6) 86 (36.6) 96 (47.5)   
 Good/fair/poor 255 (58.4) 149 (63.4) 106 (52.5)   
Ability to face an unexpected bill <.001 0.27
 No 287 (65.7) 182 (77.4) 105 (52.0)   
 Yes 150 (34.3) 53 (22.6) 97 (48.0)   
 Working hours per week 32 (24) 25 (28) 37 (19) <.001 −0.24**
Healthcare utilization in the past 12 months .071  
 No 110 (25.2) 51 (21.7) 59 (29.2)   
 Yes 327 (74.8) 184 (78.3) 143 (70.8)   
Anxiety symptoms <.001 0.19
 No 283 (64.8) 132 (56.2) 151 (74.8)   
 Yes 154 (35.2) 103 (43.8) 51 (25.2)   
Multi-morbidity .034 0.10
 No 358 (81.9) 184 (78.5) 174 (86.1)   
 Yes 79 (18.1) 51 (21.7) 28 (13.9)   
  1. *Comparisons between the undocumented and the newly regularized or eligible for regularization groups
  2. **Use of Cliff’s Delta
  3. IQR = interquartile range