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Table 1 Characteristics of households included in the analysis, by dental healthcare service use one month prior to the survey and catastrophic health expenditure during 2018 in Iran

From: The impact of out-of pocket payments of households for dental healthcare services on catastrophic healthcare expenditure in Iran

Variables Households n (%) Proportion of households (95% CI)
Used dental care Incurred CHE
Demographic variables
Sex of household head
  Male 33,751 (86.9) 5.0 (4.8–5.2) 4.6 (4.3–4.8)
  Female 5107 (13.1) 3.1 (2.6–3.6) 7.2 (6.5–7.9)
Age of household head
  15–45 16,981 (43.7) 5.3 (5.0–5.7) 3.3 (3.1–3.7)
  46–65 14,730 (37.9) 5.2 (4.8–5.5) 4.5 (4.2–4.9)
   ≥ 66-year-old 7147 (18.4) 2.4 (2.1–2.8) 9.4 (8.7–10.1)
 Household had ≤5-year-old child
  Yes 9601 (24.7) 4.9 (4.5–5.4) 3.4 (3.1–3.8)
  No 29,257 (75.3) 4.7 (4.4–4.9) 5.4 (5.2–5.7)
 Household had ≥66-year-old member
  Yes 8044 (20.7) 2.8 (2.5–3.2) 9.1 (8.4–9.7)
  No 30,814 (79.3) 5.2 (5.0–5.5) 3.8 (3.6–4.1)
Socioeconomic variables
Educational status of household head
  Illiterate 9335 (24.0) 2.1 (1.8–2.4) 8.3 (7.7–8.8)
  Literate 29,523 (76.0) 5.6 (5.3–5.8) 3.8 (3.6–4.1)
Wealth index of households
  Poorest 7730 (19.9) 1.9 (1.7–2.3) 6.7 (6.2–7.3)
  Poor 7775 (20.0) 3.3 (2.9–3.7) 6.3 (5.8–6.9)
  Middle 7779 (20.0) 4.1 (3.7–4.6) 4.0 (3.6–4.5)
  Rich 7785 (20.0) 6.1 (5.6–6.7) 4.2 (3.7–4.6)
  Richest 7789 (20.1) 8.1 (7.5–8.7) 3.4 (2.9–3.8)
Insurance coverage
  Yes 34,369 (88.4) 4.9 (4.7–5.1) 5.0 (4.9–5.3)
  No 4489 (11.6) 3.4 (2.9–3.9) 4.0 (3.5–4.6)
Ecological variables
Geographical location of household
  Urban 20,312 (52.3) 5.7 (5.4–6.1) 4.0 (3.7–4.3)
  Rural 18,546 (47.7) 3.6 (3.3–3.9) 5.9 (5.6–6.3)
HDI*of province
  Low 14,050 (36.2) 3.5 (3.2–9.7) 4.4 (4.1–4.7)
  Medium 12,716 (32.7) 5.7 (5.3–6.1) 5.8 (5.5–6.2)
  High 12,092 (31.1) 5.2 (4.8–5.6) 4.6 (4.3–5.1)
  1. Note: HDI is human development index; CI is the confidence interval; CHE is the catastrophic healthcare expenditure