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Table 1 Socio-demographic, disease characteristics, and associations

From: Health literacy levels and its determinants among people with asthma in Malaysian primary healthcare settings: a cross-sectional study

Variables All patients N = 550 Adequate health literacy N = 221 Limited health literacy n = 329 Significance
N % n %
Age Mean (SD): 48 (15.44)      < 0.001*
  < 40 30.7% 87 39.4 82 24.9  
  > 40 69.3% 134 60.6 247 75.1  
Sex       0.777
 Male 36.0% 78 35.3 120 36.5  
 Female 64.0% 143 64.7 209 63.5  
Ethnicity       0.208
 Chinese 12.4% 24 10.9 44 13.4  
 Malay 51.1% 123 55.7 158 48.0  
 Indian 36.5% 74 33.5 127 38.6  
Marital status       0.058
 Not married 28.9% 59 26.7 65 19.8  
 Married 71.1% 162 73.3 264 80.2  
Educational attainment       < 0.001*
 No formal education/primary education 33.3% 34 15 149 45.3  
 Secondary education 45.8% 112 51 140 42.6  
 Tertiary education 20.9% 75 34 40 12.2  
Household income       < 0.001*
  < 3000 83.3% 167 75.6 291 88.4  
  > 3000 16.7% 54 24.4 38 11.6  
Duration of asthma diagnosis (years) Mean (SD) 20.6 (15.9)      0.005*
  < 20 50.5% 128 57.9 150 45.6  
  > 20 49.5% 93 42.1 179 54.4  
Use of preventer       0.020*
 No 30.2% 79 35.7 87 26.4  
 Yes 69.8% 142 64.3 242 73.6  
Family history of asthma       0.004*
 No 37.5% 67 30.3 139 42.2  
 Yes 62.5% 154 69.7 190 57.8  
Asthma control (based on ACQ)       0.098
 Uncontrolled 50.9% 103 46.6 177 53.8  
Controlled 49.1% 118 53.4 152 46.2  
Self-rated asthma control       0.455
 Uncontrolled 12.7% 31 14.0 39 11.9  
 Controlled 87.3% 190 86.0 290 88.1  
Education on the asthma action plan       0.001*
 No 70.9% 174 78.7 216 65.7  
 Yes (n = 160) 29.1% 47 21.3 113 34.3  
 -Verbal 22% 19 3.5 102 18.5  
 -Written 7.1% 28 5.1 11 2  
Other medical problems       0.027*
 No 54.9% 134 60.6 168 51.1  
 Yes 45.1% 87 39.4 161 48.9  
Body mass index (kg/m2) Mean (SD) = 26.8 (6.4)      0.071
 Underweight (< 18.5) 4.7 11 5.0 15 4.6  
 Normal weight (18.5–22.9) 26 49 22.2 94 28.6  
 Overweight (23–27.4) 30 60 27.1 105 31.9  
 Obese (>  27.5) 39.3 101 45.7 115 35.0  
  1. Univariate analysis (Chi-square test). * P-value < 0.05