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Table 2 Frequency (N) and percentage (%) of Epirus Health Study (EHS) participants per COVID-19-related question overall and by sex, age group and date of report

From: Awareness, knowledge and trust in the Greek authorities towards COVID-19 pandemic: results from the Epirus Health Study cohort

   According to sex According to age (years) According to the date of report
Overall (n = 563) Men (n = 226) Women (n = 337) P-value 25–39 (n = 122) 40–49 (n = 191) 50–59 (n = 151) 60+ (n = 99) P-value March 30th-May 3rd (n = 284) May 4th-June 31st (n = 159) July 1st-August 31st (n = 120) P-value
Awareness towards COVID-19 pandemic
 Are you aware of the COVID-19 pandemic?
  No 9 (1.6) 7 (3.1) 2 (0.6) 0.034 3 (2.5) 5 (2.6) 1 (0.7) 0 (0) 0.241 7 (2.5) 2 (1.3) 0 (0) 0.194
  Yes 554 (98.4) 219 (96.9) 335 (99.4)   119 (97.5) 186 (97.4) 150 (99.3) 99 (100)   277 (97.5) 157 (98.7) 120 (100)  
 Have you been tested for SARS-CoV-2?
  No 549 (97.5) 221 (97.8) 328 (97.3) 0.790 116 (95.1) 187 (97.9) 148 (98.1) 98 (99.0) 0.318 280 (98.6) 155 (97.5) 114 (95.0) 0.112
  Yes 14 (2.5) 5 (2.2) 9 (2.7)   6 (4.9) 4 (2.1) 3 (2.0) 1 (1.0)   4 (1.4) 4 (2.5) 6 (5.0)  
 Have you been tested positive for SARS-CoV-2?
  No 563 (100) 226 (100) 337 (100) NA 122 (100) 191 (100) 151 (100) 99 (100) NA 284 (100) 159 (100) 120 (100) NA
  Yes 0 (0) 0 (0) 0 (0)   0 (0) 0 (0) 0 (0) 0 (0)   0 (0) 0 (0) 0 (0)  
 Do you believe you’re positive for SARS-CoV-2, although not tested?
  No 490 (95.5) 202 (96.2) 288 (95.1) 0.666 106 (94.6) 162 (95.3) 129 (95.6) 93 (96.9) 0.893 254 (98.1) 151 (98.1) 85 (85.0) < 0.001
  Yes 23 (4.5) 8 (3.8) 15 (5.0)   6 (5.4) 8 (4.7) 6 (4.4) 3 (3.1)   5 (1.9) 3 (2.0) 15 (15.0)  
 Have you had COVID-19-related symptoms for several days during last months?
  No 515 (92.5) 209 (92.9) 306 (92.2) 0.870 112 (92.6) 176 (93.1) 134 (90.5) 93 (93.9) 0.778 266 (95.7) 155 (97.5) 94 (78.3) < 0.001
  Yes 42 (7.5) 16 (7.1) 26 (7.8)   9 (7.4) 13 (6.9) 14 (9.5) 6 (6.1)   12 (4.3) 4 (2.5) 26 (21.7)  
 Have you had any family member tested positive for SARS-CoV-2?
  No 559 (99.6) 224 (99.6) 335 (99.7) 1.000 121 (99.2) 191 (100) 149 (99.3) 98 (100) 0.550 283 (100) 157 (99.4) 119 (99.2) 0.245
  Yes 2 (0.4) 1 (0.4) 1 (0.3)   1 (0.8) 0 (0) 1 (0.7) 0 (0)   0 (0) 1 (0.6) 1 (0.8)  
 Are you capable of protecting yourself against SARS-CoV-2?
  No capability 2 (0.4) 0 (0) 2 (0.6) 0.642 0 (0) 1 (0.5) 1 (0.7) 0 (0) 0.093 2 (0.7) 0 (0) 0 (0) < 0.001
  Little capability 14 (2.5) 6 (2.7) 8 (2.4)   3 (2.5) 9 (4.8) 2 (1.3) 0 (0)   5 (1.8) 2 (1.3) 7 (5.8)  
  Moderate capability 361 (64.5) 150 (66.7) 211 (63.0)   87 (71.3) 111 (58.7) 101 (67.3) 62 (62.6)   152 (53.9) 119 (75.3) 90 (75.0)  
  Absolute capability 183 (32.7) 69 (30.7) 114 (34.0)   32 (26.2) 68 (36.0) 46 (30.7) 37 (37.4)   123 (43.6) 37 (23.4) 23 (19.2)  
 Are you sure you won’t get infected by SARS-CoV-2?
  No certainty 301 (53.9) 111 (49.1) 190 (57.1) 0.209 68 (55.7) 110 (58.2) 80 (53.7) 43 (43.4) 0.514* 125 (44.3) 91 (58.0) 85 (70.8) < 0.001
  Little certainty 80 (14.3) 34 (15.0) 46 (13.8)   19 (15.6) 25 (13.2) 22 (14.8) 14 (14.1)   51 (18.1) 14 (8.9) 15 (12.5)  
  Moderate certainty 154 (27.6) 68 (30.1) 86 (25.8)   29 (23.8) 48 (25.4) 41 (27.5) 36 (36.4)   94 (33.3) 43 (27.4) 17 (14.2)  
  Absolute certainty 24 (4.3) 13 (5.8) 11 (3.3)   6 (4.9) 6 (3.2) 6 (4.0) 6 (6.1)   12 (4.3) 9 (5.7) 3 (2.5)  
Knowledge on transmission routes and COVID-19 severity
 Is SARS-CoV-2 transmitted through blood transfusion?
  No 438 (86.1) 185 (81.9) 298 (89.0) 0.018 97 (79.5) 165 (86.8) 132 (88.0) 89 (89.9) 0.124 250 (88.7) 138 (86.8) 95 (79.2) 0.046
  Yes 78 (13.9) 41 (18.1) 37 (11.0)   25 (20.5) 25 (13.2) 18 (12.0) 10 (10.1)   32 (11.4) 21 (13.2) 25 (20.8)  
 Is SARS-CoV-2 transmitted through droplets in the air?
  No 4 (0.7) 1 (0.4) 3 (0.9) 0.652 0 (0) 3 (1.6) 1 (0.7) 0 (0) 0.501 0 (0) 4 (2.5) 0 (0) 0.008
  Yes 557 (99.3) 225 (99.6) 332 (99.1)   122 (100) 187 (98.4) 149 (99.3) 99 (100)   282 (100) 155 (97.5) 120 (100)  
 Is SARS-CoV-2 transmitted by contacting infected people?
  No 10 (1.8) 4 (1.8) 6 (1.8) 1.000 2 (1.6) 6 (3.2) 2 (1.3) 0 (0) 0.317 2 (0.7) 4 (2.5) 4 (3.3) 0.102
  Yes 551 (98.2) 222 (98.2) 329 (98.2)   120 (98.4) 184 (96.8) 148 (98.7) 99 (100)   280 (99.3) 155 (97.5) 116 (96.7)  
 Is SARS-CoV-2 transmitted by touching contaminated surfaces?
  No 21 (3.7) 9 (4.0) 12 (3.6) 0.824 5 (4.1) 8 (4.2) 4 (2.7) 4 (4.0) 0.872 12 (4.3) 8 (5.0) 1 (0.8) 0.136
  Yes 540 (96.3) 217 (96.0) 323 (96.4)   117 (95.9) 182 (95.8) 146 (97.3) 95 (96.0)   270 (95.7) 151 (95.0) 119 (99.2)  
 Is SARS-CoV-2 transmitted through sex?
  No 403 (71.8) 157 (69.5) 246 (73.4) 0.339 68 (55.7) 137 (72.1) 120 (80.0) 78 (78.8) < 0.001 199 (70.6) 118 (74.2) 86 (71.7) 0.732
  Yes 158 (28.2) 69 (30.5) 89 (26.6)   54 (44.3) 53 (27.9) 30 (20.0) 21 (21.2)   83 (29.4) 41 (25.8) 34 (28.3)  
 Is SARS-CoV-2 transmitted by touching infected animals?
  No 502 (89.5) 199 (88.1) 303 (90.5) 0.401 106 (86.9) 171 (90.0) 136 (90.7) 89 (89.9) 0.755 258 (91.5) 140 (88.1) 104 (86.7) 0.248
  Yes 59 (10.5) 27 (12.0) 32 (9.6)   16 (13.1) 19 (10.0) 14 (9.3) 10 (10.1)   24 (8.5) 19 (12.0) 16 (13.3)  
 Is SARS-CoV-2 transmitted through mosquito bite?
  No 537 (95.7) 217 (96.0) 320 (95.5) 0.835 113 (92.6) 183 (96.3) 147 (98.0) 94 (95.0) 0.166 272 (96.5) 151 (95.0) 114 (95.0) 0.677
  Yes 24 (4.3) 9 (4.0) 15 (4.5)   9 (7.4) 7 (3.7) 3 (2.0) 5 (5.1)   10 (3.6) 8 (5.0) 6 (5.0)  
 Is SARS-CoV-2 transmitted by eating contaminated food?
  No 440 (78.4) 178 (78.8) 262 (78.2) 0.917 90 (73.8) 143 (75.3) 123 (82.0) 84 (84.9) 0.100 217 (77.0) 127 (79.9) 96 (80.0) 0.702
  Yes 121 (21.6) 48 (21.2) 73 (21.8)   32 (26.2) 47 (24.7) 27 (18.0) 15 (15.2)   65 (23.1) 32 (20.1) 24 (20.0)  
 Is SARS-CoV-2 transmitted by drinking contaminated water?
  No 446 (79.5) 179 (79.2) 267 (79.7) 0.915 93 (76.2) 146 (76.8) 123 (82.0) 84 (84.9) 0.269 221 (78.4) 128 (80.5) 97 (80.8) 0.829
  Yes 115 (20.5) 47 (20.8) 68 (20.3)   29 (23.8) 44 (23.2) 27 (18.0) 15 (15.2)   61 (21.6) 31 (19.5) 23 (19.2)  
 Can someone with no COVID-19 symptoms transmit the SARS-CoV-2?
  No 11 (2.0) 3 (1.3) 8 (2.4) 0.538 3 (2.5) 3 (1.6) 1 (0.7) 4 (4.1) 0.268 2 (0.7) 5 (3.1) 4 (3.4) 0.074
  Yes 548 (98.0) 222 (98.7) 326 (97.6)   119 (97.5) 187 (98.4) 149 (99.3) 93 (95.9)   280 (99.3) 154 (96.9) 114 (96.6)  
 How severe is COVID-19?
  Almost everyone survives 7 (1.3) 5 (2.2) 2 (0.6) 0.271 3 (2.5) 2 (1.1) 2 (1.3) 0 (0) 0.593 1 (0.4) 3 (1.9) 3 (2.5) 0.088
  Most people survive, some people die 530 (94.5) 211 (93.4) 319 (95.2)   114 (93.4) 178 (93.7) 144 (96.0) 94 (95.0)   269 (95.4) 146 (91.8) 115 (95.8)  
  Many people survive, many people die 23 (4.1) 10 (4.4) 13 (3.9)   4 (3.3) 10 (5.3) 4 (2.7) 5 (5.1)   12 (4.3) 9 (5.7) 2 (1.7)  
  Some people survive, most people die 1 (0.2) 0 (0) 1 (0.3)   1 (0.8) 0 (0) 0 (0) 0 (0)   0 (0) 1 (0.6) 0 (0)  
  Almost everyone dies 0 (0) 0 (0) 0 (0)   0 (0) 0 (0) 0 (0) 0 (0)   0 (0) 0 (0) 0 (0)  
 How do you evaluate your knowledge for protecting against SARS-CoV-2?
  Lack of knowledge 1 (0.2) 0 (0) 1 (0.3) 0.099 0 (0) 1 (0.5) 0 (0) 0 (0) 0.424 1 (0.4) 0 (0) 0 (0) < 0.001
  Requires improvement 63 (11.2) 19 (8.4) 44 (13.1)   13 (10.7) 20 (10.5) 23 (15.3) 7 (7.1)   29 (10.3) 9 (5.7) 25 (20.8)  
  Good 265 (47.2) 118 (52.2) 147 (43.9)   64 (52.5) 89 (46.8) 62 (41.3) 50 (50.5)   106 (37.6) 97 (61.0) 62 (51.7)  
  Very good 232 (41.4) 89 (39.4) 143 (42.7)   45 (36.9) 80 (42.1) 65 (43.3) 42 (42.4)   146 (51.8) 53 (33.3) 33 (27.5)  
Official information and trust in the Greek authorities
 How do you evaluate the available information regarding COVID-19 pandemic?
  No access 31 (5.6) 14 (6.3) 17 (5.1) 0.626 8 (6.7) 7 (3.7) 8 (5.4) 8 (8.3) 0.456* 5 (1.8) 11 (7.0) 15 (13.2) < 0.001*
  Fair 174 (31.4) 69 (30.9) 105 (31.7)   44 (36.7) 62 (32.8) 47 (31.5) 21 (21.9)   78 (27.7) 55 (34.8) 41 (36.0)  
  Good 115 (20.8) 41 (18.4) 74 (22.4)   23 (19.2) 42 (22.2) 30 (20.1) 20 (20.8)   42 (14.9) 47 (29.8) 26 (22.8)  
  Very good 234 (42.2) 99 (44.4) 135 (40.8)   45 (37.5) 78 (41.3) 64 (43.0) 47 (49.0)   157 (55.7) 45 (28.5) 32 (28.1)  
 Do you trust the Greek Government for stopping the spread of SARS-CoV-2?
  No trust 47 (8.7) 19 (8.7) 28 (8.6) 0.405 10 (8.6) 11 (6.0) 14 (9.7) 12 (12.2) 0.001* 11 (3.9) 12 (8.1) 24 (21.2) < 0.001
  Little trust 36 (6.6) 10 (4.6) 26 (8.0)   9 (7.7) 17 (9.3) 7 (4.8) 3 (3.1)   10 (3.6) 10 (6.8) 16 (14.2)  
  Moderate trust 221 (40.7) 88 (40.2) 133 (41.1)   62 (53.0) 80 (43.7) 51 (35.2) 28 (28.6)   104 (36.9) 64 (43.2) 53 (46.9)  
  Absolute trust 239 (44.0) 102 (46.6) 137 (42.3)   36 (30.8) 75 (41.0) 73 (50.3) 55 (56.1)   157 (55.7) 62 (41.9) 20 (17.7)  
 Do you trust the Greek health authorities for stopping the spread of SARS-CoV-2?
  No trust 21 (3.8) 6 (2.7) 15 (4.5) 0.022 5 (4.1) 5 (2.7) 8 (5.4) 3 (3.1) 0.008* 6 (2.1) 2 (1.3) 13 (11.0) < 0.001
  Little trust 34 (6.1) 12 (5.4) 22 (6.6)   7 (5.8) 15 (8.0) 7 (4.7) 5 (5.1)   9 (3.2) 8 (5.2) 17 (14.4)  
  Moderate trust 196 (35.4) 65 (29.3) 131 (39.5)   56 (46.3) 70 (37.4) 50 (33.8) 20 (20.4)   84 (29.8) 56 (36.4) 56 (47.5)  
  Absolute trust 303 (54.7) 139 (62.6) 164 (49.4)   53 (43.8) 97 (51.9) 83 (56.1) 70 (71.4)   183 (64.9) 88 (57.1) 32 (27.1)  
 Do you trust the Greek officials regarding the information for COVID-19 pandemic?
  No trust 37 (6.8) 13 (5.9) 24 (7.3) 0.076 9 (7.6) 11 (5.9) 9 (6.2) 8 (8.2) 0.071* 5 (1.8) 7 (4.6) 25 (21.7) < 0.001
  Little trust 32 (5.8) 7 (3.2) 25 (7.7)   8 (6.8) 12 (6.5) 7 (4.8) 5 (5.1)   5 (1.8) 15 (9.9) 12 (10.4)  
  Moderate trust 234 (42.7) 92 (41.6) 142 (43.4)   60 (50.9) 86 (46.2) 60 (41.1) 28 (28.6)   107 (37.9) 66 (43.7) 61 (53.0)  
  Absolute trust 245 (44.7) 109 (49.3) 136 (41.6)   41 (34.8) 77 (41.4) 70 (48.0) 57 (58.2)   165 (58.5) 63 (41.7) 17 (14.8)  
  1. Abbreviations: COVID-19, Coronavirus disease 2019; NA, Not applicable; SARS-CoV-2, Severe Acute Respiratory Syndrome-Coronavirus-2
  2. *P-value from Pearson’s chi-square test